This Day in Aviation History Files, compiled by Don Kutter on the AVSIG forum at

                         June 1

In 1813, the US Navy gained its motto as Capt James
        Lawrence, commander of the US frigate "Chesapeake,"
        said "Don't give up the ship" during a losing battle
        with a British frigate.

Sir Frank Whittle:  born June 1, 1907
        born in Newcombe Road, Coventry, England; worked as
        an aircraft apprentice for RAF Cranwell in 1923; in
        1926, selected for officer and pilot training; in
        1928 his final theses contained the idea of Jet
        propulsion; in 1930 applied to patent a "reaction
        motor suitable for aircraft propulsion" (awarded in
        1932); in 1931 and 1932 he was a test pilot on
        floatplanes and flying boats.

        In 1936, Powers Jets LTD set up in a factory in
        Rugby owned by BTH; in 1939 the Air Ministry awards a
        contract to build a flight engine, the W1; in May
        1941, the first flight of the Gloster E28/39 powered
        by Whittle's jet engine.

In 1915, the Navy let its first contract for a
        lighter-than-air craft to the Connecticut Aircraft
        Company, New Haven. It ordered one non-rigid airship
        which was later designated the DN-1.

In 1938, the routine use of radiosondes (or radio
        meteorographs, as they were then called) to obtain
        data on weather conditions in the upper atmosphere
        was initiated at NAS Anacostia. By the close of the
        year, the California (BB 44) and Lexington were also
        outfitted to use radiosondes.

In 1942, USAAC 8th Fighter Group P-39 pilots down one
        fighter and six G3Ms bombers over Port Moresby
        between 1105 and 1150-hours.

In 1943, the first B-29 combat unit, the 58th (Very Heavy)
        Bombardment Wing, was activated at Marietta, Georgia
        in advance of delivery of the first YB-29s.

In 1943, a civilian flight from Lisbon to London was shot
        down killing all aboard including actor Leslie
        Howard ("Oh Ashley, Ashley!"). The flight went down
        in the Bay of Biscay and also claimed the life of
        "Alfred" Chenfalls (a Churchill Double). It was BOAC
        Flight 777 (we believe a BOAC DC-3, "Ibis") reg. G-AGBB
        out of Algiers via Lisbon to London.
        The people at Bletchley Park (via Ultra) knew that the
        Germans intended to intercept the flight, and kill
        Churchill, but said nothing to warn BOAC, lest it be
        discovered that the German Codes had been broken.
        Leslie Howard's last movie (1942) was, "The First of
        the Few", story of Reginald Mitchell, designer of the

        The flight was attacked by 8 Ju 88s, over water,
        approximately 200 miles north of the Spanish Coast.
        These Luftwaffe aircraft operated out of Bordeaux.
        There were 17 persons on board, 13 passengers and
        4 crewmen.  None survived.

In 1944, airships of ZP-14, assigned to antisubmarine
        operations around Gibraltar, completed the first
        crossing of the Atlantic by non-rigid airships. The
        flight began 29 May from South Weymouth, Mass., and
        ended at Port Lyautey, French Morocco, covering a
        distance of 3,145 nautical miles in 58 hours.
        Including time for stopovers at Argentia and the
        Azores, the airships moved their area of operations
        across the Atlantic in 80 hours.

In 1948, the Naval Air Transport Service and the Air
        Transport Service of the Air Force Air Transport
        Command, were consolidated to form the Military Air
        Transport Service (MATS) as a unified element of the
        National Military Establishment under the command
        and direction of the U. S. Air Force.

In 1954, Commander H. J. Jackson, in an S2F-1, was
        catapulted from the Hancock in the initial
        operational test of the C-11 steam catapult. As
        tests continued throughout the month, a total of
        254 launchings were made with the S2F, AD-5, F2H-3,
        F2H-4, FJ-2, F7U-3 and F3D-2.

In 1955, Electronic Countermeasures Squadron 1 (VQ-1), first
        squadron of its type in the U.S. Navy, was
        established at NAS Iwakuni, Japan, with Lieutenant
        Commander Eugene R. Hall in command. First aircraft
        assigned were P4M-1Q Mercators.

In 1962, the final report on the titanium alloy sheet
        rolling program was issued by the Materials Advisory
        Board of the National Research Council, thereby
        terminating this program as a formally organized
        effort. Achievements of the program during the six
        years included acquiring metallurgical and
        engineering data for a number of titanium alloys and
        familiarizing the aerospace industry with their
        properties and methods of fabrication.

        High strength, heat-treated sheet alloys developed
        under this program were soon utilized in a number of
        aircraft including the A-7, later models of the F-4,
        the Air Force SR-71 and in deep submergence vehicles
        used in oceanographic research. The success of this
        effort also led to the establishment of a similar
        refractory metal sheet rolling program to develop
        metals for use at extremely high temperatures.

In 1969, on a flight from Stephenville, Newfoundland, to
        Mildenhall, England, Lieutenant Colonel R. Lewis,
        USMC, and Major C. L. Phillips, USMC, piloted an
        OV-10 Bronco to a world record of 2,539.78 miles for
        point-to-point distance for light turbo-prop

In 1970, Soyuz-9 was launched. Nikolayev and Sevastyanov
        would go on to set an endurance record of 17 days.

In 1981, the first flight of the Shorts model 360.

In 1995, the Spectr laboratory module docked to Mir.

                      June 2

Robert Morris Page:  born June 2, 1903
        Physicist; Inventor of pulse radar

In 1917, the Aviation Section became the Airplane Division
        of the Army Signal Corps, and Major B. D. Foulois
        was appointed officer-in-charge on July 23.

In 1923, Lieutenants Oakley T. Kelly and John A. Macready
        received an enthusiastic welcome at Bolling Field.
        They had flown their converted T-2 Fokker monoplane
        from Roosevelt Field, New York, (leaving May 2) to
        Rockwell Field, California. This non-stop,
        transcontinental flight took the aviators nearly
        27 hours, averaging 94 miles per hour for the
        2,520-mile journey. Shortly after take-off, Macready
        made the first in-flight engine repair in Air
        Service history when he replaced a defective voltage

        When they landed in California the next day, they
        had proven that troops and suppplies could be moved
        from coast to coast in one day. And, at the same
        time, the flyers had set a new record for the
        greatest distance made in a single cross-country
        flight. The two lieutenants flew back to the
        east coast, making easy hops from town to town on
        their return trip. They were honored later at the
        White House by President Warren G. Harding.

In 1924, Dr. C. L. Meisinger of the Weather Bureau and Lt.
        James T. Neely were killed by lightning in
        storm-riding balloon flight, near Monticello,

Charles Conrad:  born June 2, 1930
        US Astronaut; born in Philadelphia, PA; attended Navy
        test pilot school at Patuxent River, MD; instructed
        in F4H Phantoms; assigned to VF-96 onboard the Ranger;
        Crewmember of Gemini 5, Gemini 11, Apollo 12 and
        Skylab 2.               

In 1942, U.S. Navy PBY patrol bombers from "Patrol Wing 4"
        locate two Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft carriers
        approximtely 400-miles south of Kiska Island.

In 1954, with test pilot J. F. Coleman at the controls, the
        Convair XFY-1, a vertical takeoff aircraft, made the
        first free vertical takeoff and landing at Moffett
        Naval Air Station, Mountain View, Calif.

In 1957, Captain Joseph W. Kittinger, Jr. (USAF), remained
        aloft in plastic MAN HIGH I balloon over Minnesota
        for hours 34 minutes, being above 92,000 feet for 2
        hours and reaching 96,000 feet maximum altitude.
        This was first solo balloon flight into the

In 1961, the collapse of a lock in the Wheeler Dam below
        Huntsville on the Tennessee River interdicted the
        planned water route of the first Saturn space
        booster from Marshall Space Flight Center to Cape
        Canaveral on the barge Palaemon.

In 1961, Deputy Premier Mikhail Khrunichev, chief
        coordinator of the Soviet Union's man-in-space
        program, died in Moscow.

In 1966, Surveyor-1 touched down on the Moon. This was the
        first US soft landing on the Moon.

In 1972, the Aerospatiale SA-360 Dauphin/Panther helicopter
        makes its first flight at Marignane near Marseilles.

In 1983, Venera-15 is launched on its journey to Venus.

In 1998, STS-91 was launched on the last US flight to the
        MIR space station.

In 2003, the launch of the of Mars Express, with Beagle
        lander on Soyuz-FG/Fregat.

                          June 3

Sir John Cotesworth Slessor:  born June 3, 1897
        Promoted to Marshal of the Royal Air Force on 8 June 1950

In 1912, Laurie Marshall, from Fairfield, Victoria,
        Australia, advertised, at 2 shillings a pop, that he
        would fly from the Northcote Oval, Victoria. About
        1000 people turned up and some 5000 were outside.
        The engine refused to start and a near riot
        ensued. His creditors seized the plane and auctioned
        it and there is no knowledge of it's final fate.
In 1916, formal instruction in free and captive balloons was
        instituted at Pensacola when the Secretary of the
        Navy approved a course proposed by Lieutenant
        Commander F. R. McCrary, and directed that it be
        added to the BuNav Circular "Courses of Instruction
        and Required Qualifications of Personnel for the Air
        Service of the Navy."

In 1942, Aletuian Islands: Beginning at 0545-hours, Imperial
        Japanese Navy aircraft from the HIJMS Junyo and HIJMS
        Ryujo form multiple task waves and attack Unalaska
        Island's "Dutch Harbor Naval Air Station" and "Fort Mears
        Army Air Field" killing 52 American military personnel.
        One Patrol Wing 4 PBY is brought down!

In 1953, Elvis graduates from Humes High School in Memphis, TN

In 1958, the USAF and NACA jointly announce details on the
        inertial guidance system to be used on the X-15
        research aircraft, a flight instrument system to
        allow the pilot to prevent the aircraft from
        reentering dense atmosphere too steeply or too

In 1961, Dr. Edward R. Sharp, former Director of Lewis
        Research Laboratory (1942-61), was presented NASA's
        first Outstanding Leadership Medal by Dr. Hugh L.

In 1961, the USAF B-58 which established Atlantic crossing
        record to Paris of 3 hours 19 minutes crashed after
        takeoff from Le Bourget Airport, killing its three-
        man crew. Major Elmer E. Murphy, pilot, had recently
        been awarded the Louis Bleriot Speed Trophy for
        record speed flight of 1,302 miles per hour in

In 1965, the launch of Gemini 4 - McDivitt, White (100 x 175 nm,
        32 deg, 66 revs, first US EVA (White, 21 minutes).

In 1966, the launch of Gemini 9 - Stafford, Cernan
        (100 x 169nm, 28.9 degrees, 47 orbits, EVA).

In 1980, the first AGM-65E laser Maverick missile was fired
        at Eglin AFB, Florida, from a Marine Corps A-4M
        Skyhawk. The missile was the laser-guided version of
        the USAF's air-to-ground Maverick with a heavier
        warhead. It was being developed by Hughes Aircraft
        Company for use by the USMC in close-air support of
        combat troops.

                           June 4

In 1784, Marie Thible became the first woman to "fly" in a
        hot air balloon. Pilot, Monsieur Fleurant guided
        "Le Gustav" to an altitude of 8,500 feet above
        Lyon, France.
In 1917, the construction of five prototype models of 8- and
        12-cylinder Liberty motors was authorized by the
        Aircraft Production Board and the Joint Technical
        Board on Aircraft. The design of these engines,
        based on conservative engineering practices
        especially adapted to mass production techniques,
        had been worked out in a room in a Washington hotel
        by J. G. Vincent of the Packard Motor Car Company
        and E. J. Hall of the Hall-Scott Motor Car Company,
        commencing on 29 May.

In 1927, Daniel Guggenheim School of Aeronautics officially
        opened at New York University. Daniel Guggenheim
        Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics also made
        gifts to MIT, University of Michigan, Stanford
        University, and the California Institute of
        Technology in this time period.

In 1927, Clarence D. Chamberlain and Charles A. Levine flew
        nonstop from New York to Eisleben, Germany, in
        Bellanca monoplane Columbia. The flight began at
        Roosevelt Field, L.I., N.Y. and arrived on
        June 6 just about 100-miles short of its
        destination: Berlin, Germany.

In 1930, Lieutenant Apollo Soucek, in a Wright Apache
        equipped with a Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine, set the
        new world altitude mark (FAI Class C-2) at
        43,166 feet.

In 1931, a Dornier DO-X, 12-engined German flying boat
        (which carried 169 passengers on its trial flight),
        arrived in New York after flying the South Atlantic.

In 1941, the Naval Aircraft Factory reported that
        development of airborne television had progressed to
        the point that signals transmitted by this means
        could be used to alter the course of the
        transmitting plane.

In 1942, the TBF Grumman Avenger flown by pilots of a
        shore-based element of Torpedo Squadron 8, began its
        combat career with action during the Battle of
        Midway. Originally, they were to be the first
        replacements for the obsolete TBD-1s of VT-8
        and were to "come aboard" USS Hornet at Pearl Harbor.

        The TBFs were not yet attached to VT8. They had been delivered
        too late to make the deployment, so the detachment stayed
        back at Norfolk to finish up training when Hornet put to
        sea on emergency deployment orders. They then flew to
        Alameda where the airplanes were loaded on a freighter
        for Honolulu. The pilots and aircrew followed on a
        passenger liner. Once in Hawaii, they waited for Hornet.
        When the Japanese Midway attack plan was discovered,
        Hornet headed back west instead of coming to Pearl Harbor.
        The TBFs then flew the 1,136 miles out to Midway. At
        0705 hrs the six TBFs took off and ultimately engaged
        the Japanese carrier Akagi. Five of the six were lost
        in this attack, scoring no hits. Surviving was Lt(jg)
        Albert K. "Bert" Earnest.  Earnest and his crew
        limped back to Midway after being attacked by a couple
        of Zeros. Incidentally, Earnest also had two enlisted
        aircrew (two gunners - one doubled as radioman) who
        also made it back to Midway Island.

        Also, at 0918 hours, Hornet based Torpedo Squadron 8
        (VT-8), flying unescorted, attacked the Akagi". All
        of their TBDs are shot down with only one pilot,
        Ensign George Gay, surviving.    

In 1942, the "Battle of Midway" begins on this date with
        discovery of the Japanese Transport Flotilla by Midway
        based PBYs. A pre-dawn launch of 36 B5Ns, 36 D3As and
        36 A6Ms by the Japanese carriers makes its first strike
        against Midway Atoll.

In 1954, Major Arthur Murray, USAF, piloted the X-1A
        research airplane, launched from a B-29 to a record
        altitude of slightly over 90,000 feet, highest so
        far attained by man.

In 1961, Northrop disclosed "porous wing" plane under
        development for USAF, modified version of WB-66D
        based on inhalation concept(eliminating up to 80
        percent of the frictional drag) proposed by Werner
        Pfenninger. Work on drag reduction by means of
        increasing the laminar flow by boundary layer
        suction had been performed at Langley Aeronautical
        Laboratory in the late 1930's by Albert E. Doenhoff
        and Ira H. Abbott.

In 1965, the first flight of the Nanchang A-5 Fantan.

                          June 5

In 1783, the first public ballon flight was made by the
        Montgolfier brothers, Joseph and Etienne, at
        Annonay, France. The unmanned ballon was made of
        linen and paper.

William Boyd:  born June 5, 1898
        Actor; played Hopalong Cassidy

In 1917, the first U.S. military unit sent to France in
        World War I, the First Aeronautic Detachment,
        arrived in Pauillac, France, aboard Jupiter (AC 3).
        The Detachment, consisting of seven officers and 122
        enlisted men, including the element aboard Neptune
       (AC 8) which arrived at St. Nazaire on 8 June, was
        commanded by Lieutenant Kenneth Whiting. Offloading
        was completed by 10 June.

In 1927, the Society for Space Travel (Verein fuer
        Raumschiffahrt), known as "VfR," formed in Breslau,

In 1942, the second day of the "Battle of Midway": VMSB-241
        and Seventh Air Force B-17s attack and damage
        IJN Cruisers... a fatally damaged Marine SB2U piloted
        by Captain Richard E. Fleming crashes into the Crusiser
        Mikuma. Fleming is later awarded a posthumous Medal of
        Honor... B-17s again attack carrier Hiru which sinks
        during the morning 130-miles west of Midway.
        Enterprise and Hornet Air Groups attack remnant
        surface units of the IJN.

        Capt. Fleming was from So. St. Paul and that is why
        Fleming Field is named after he (not Ian Fleming)
        and his Vought SB2U "WindIndicator".

In 1947, the first AAF research balloon launch (a cluster of
        rubber balloons) at Holloman, by New York University
        team under contract with Air Material Command.
        The USAF says that  after multiple global
        circumnavigations, one of these came down at
        Roswell, N.M. on 7 July 1947, splattering pieces of
        rubber all over the Brazel ranch up in Lincoln
        County, northwest of Roswell.

In 1954, the first production F4D-1 (BuNo 130740) took off
        on its maiden flight. It exceeded the speed of sound
        in level flight during its first flight. During
        flight test, frequent engine stalls were encountered
        at high speeds above 40,000 feet, and it was found
        necessary to modify the geometry of the air intakes
        and to add an airflow baffle plate ahead of each air
        intake in order to alleviate this problem.

        Changes also had to be made to the fairing around
        the afterburner exhaust in order to make the airflow
        smoother, eliminating a high-speed turbulence
        problem that had been encountered during early
        flight testing of the F4D-1 with the J57 engine.

In 1959, construction at Cape Canaveral for the Saturn
        program was begun.

In 1960, Winzen Research launched 107-cubic-foot balloon
        from NAS Glynco, Georgia, for cosmic ray studies;
        after 10 days of flight the balloon disappeared over
        the Pacific on a westerly heading.

In 1961, huge Saturn launch complex at Cape Canaveral
        dedicated in brief ceremony by NASA, construction of
        which was supervised by the Army Corps of Engineers.
        Giant gantry, weighing 2,800 tons and being 310 feet
        high, is largest movable land structure in North

In 1961, two pilots sealed in 8- by 12-foot simulated space
        cabin for 17-day round trip to the Moon, at the
        School of Aerospace Medicine, San Antonio, Texas.

In 1986, the U.S. Air Force orders two specially equipped
        747-200s to transport the president of the United

                          June 6

                   Anniversary of D - Day

In 1923, planes and pilots of Aircraft Squadrons, Battle
        Fleet, established seven FAI Class C2 world records
        at San Diego, Calif., as follows:

        Lieutenant (jg) M. A. Schur, in a DT-2 torpedo
        plane, set the speed record for 500 kilometers at
        72 m.p.h.

        Lieutenant H. T. Stanley, in an F5L patrol plane,
        set distance and duration records with a payload of
        250 kilograms at 574.75 miles and 10 hours,
        23 minutes, 58 seconds.

        Lieutenant H. E. Halland, in an F5L patrol plane,
        set distance and duration records with a
        500-kilogram payload at 466 miles and 7 hours,
        35 minutes, 54 seconds.

        Lieutenant R. L. Fuller, in a DT-2 torpedo plane,
        set distance and duration marks with a
        1,000-kilogram payload at 205.2 miles and 2 hours,
        45 minutes, 9 seconds.

In 1926, the last elements of the Alaskan Aerial Survey
        Expedition departed Seattle for Alaska. The
        expedition, under command of Lieutenant B. H. Wyatt,
        was composed of the tender Gannet (AM 41) the barge
        YF 88 housing a photo lab, and three Loening
        amphibians. The work of the expedition, which
        extended through the summer and into September, was
        performed in cooperation with the Department of the
        Interior for early aerial mapping of Alaska.

In 1933, two Franklin gliders were received at NAS Pensacola
        for use in a test to determine whether inclusion of
        glider training in the student flight syllabus would
        replace or simplify elimination flight training and
        thereby reduce dual instruction time. Instructor
        training in the new craft began immediately under
        the direction of Lieutenant R. S. Barnaby, and
        glider training, as an experimental feature of the
        training program, continued into 1936.

In 1933, the first drive in movie opened in the US.  The
        location was Camden, New Jersey and the movie was
        "Wife Beware".  Richard Hollingshead hung a sheet
        between two trees in his backyard and used a 1928
        Kodak projector to display the movie.  On May 16,
        1933 he was issued patent #1,909,537.

In 1936, Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., Inc., at Paulsboro, N.J.,
        began production of aviation gasoline (100 octane)
        by the catalytic cracking method.

In 1938, the Daniel Guggenheim Medal for 1938 awarded to A.
        H. R. Fedden for "contributions to the development
        of aircraft engine design and for the specific
        design of the sleeve valve aircraft engine."

In 1942, the third and final day of the "Battle of Midway".
        Air Groups from carriers Hornet and Enterprise
        fatally damage IJN cruiser "Mikuma" and heavily
        damage IJN heavy cruiser "Mogami". Severely
        damagaed U.S. carrier Yorktown is torpedoed by
        Japanese submarine I-168 - she sinks the next day.

In 1944, --Allied Invasion of Normandy--

        "...this is much the greatest thing we have ever
           - Winston Churchill to President Roosevelt

        The invasion to liberate northwest Europe began.
        In the end, more than 100,000 men had come ashore.

        Six divisions were to land on the first day; three
        U.S., two British and one Canadian. Two more British
        and one U.S. division were to follow up after the
        assault division had cleared the way through the
        beach defences.
In 1957, two F8U Crusaders and two A3D Skywarriors flew
        nonstop from the carrier Bon Homme Richard off the
        California coast to the Saratoga off the east coast
        of Florida. This, the first carrier-to-carrier
        transcontinental flight, was completed by the F8Us
        in 3 hours 28 minutes and by the A3Ds in 4 hours
        1 minute.

In 1966, Wasp recovered Gemini 9 astronauts Thomas P.
        Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan 345 miles east of Cape
        Kennedy after their 72-hour space flight on which
        they made successful rendezvous with another
        satellite and Cernan spent well over an hour
        outside the spacecraft. The astronauts elected to
        remain in their space craft during the recovery and
        were hoisted aboard the carrier.

                      June 7

In 1936, Major Ira C. Eaker (AAC) made first
        transcontinental blind flight, from New York to Los

In 1938, the first flight of the Boeing Model 314 Clipper.
        Here are the most familiar names of the twelve (12)
        Honolulu Clipper
        California Clipper
        Yankee Clipper
        Atlantic Clipper
        Dixie Clipper
        American Clipper
        Pacific Clipper
        Anzac Clipper
        Capetown Clipper
        "Bangor" (BOAC)
        "Bristol" (BOAC)
        "Berwick" (BOAC-Used by Churchill)  G-AGCA

        HISTORY NOTE: Most of the clippers of Pan Am were
        sold after WWII to "World Airways" where they were
        used mainly in the Caribbean until early in the
        1950s... then scrapped.

        Also, the "China Clipper" was a Martin M-130,
        constructor's #558, NC-14716 a/k/a "Sweet Sixteen".
        The "Phillipine Clipper", also a Martin M-130 NC-14715,
        was the first to set down in Hong Kong but they used a
        Sikorsy S-42B for the Manila-China link. 

In 1960, a contract for ion engine development was awarded
        by NASA to Hughes Aircraft.

In 1965, the Gemini 4 spacecraft of J. A. McDivitt and E. H.
        White splashed in the Atlantic about 40 miles off
        target after a 4-day flight. Minutes later Navy
        frogmen dropped from a helicopter to attach the
        flotation collar and in less than an hour after
        landing the astronauts were landed by helicopter
        on the carrier Wasp which had kept position for
        possible landings in each orbit since blastoff on
        4 June.

In 1966, a C-130 Hercules, piloted by Commander Marion
        Morris of VX-6, returned to Christchurch, New
        Zealand, after a flight to McMurdo Station,
        Antarctica, to evacuate Robert L. Mayfield, UT-2,
        who had been critically injured in a fall. It was
        the third emergency air evacuation from Antarctica
        during the winter night.

In 1973, the Deputy Secretary of Defense directed the Navy
        to produce preliminary plans for a $250 million
        prototype development plan for a jet fighter
        aircraft costing less than the F-14 Tomcat
        missile-armed fighter.

In 1995, the first service for the Boeing 777 -200

                          June 8

Frank Lloyd Wright:  born June 8, 1869
        Architect; born in Richland Center, Wisconsin

In 1915, the U.S. Patent Office granted a patent
        (No. 1142754) to Glenn H. Curtiss covering the
        arrangement of a step or ridge incorporated in the
        hull of flying boats.

In 1916, the NACA called the first meeting of
        representatives of the aircraft industry and of
        interested Government agencies.

In 1920, Lt. J. H. Wilson (USA) made a series of
        high-altitude jumps, parachuting from a record
        altitude of 19,861 feet over San Antonio, Tex.

In 1921, the first flight of an Army Air Service pressurized
        cabin airplane was made, a D-9-A aircraft piloted by
        Lt. Harold R. Harris.

In 1927, Astronautics Committee of the Societe Astronomique
        Francaise established in France.

In 1938, after over two years of evaluation by Fleet
        Squadrons and various shore-based naval air
        activities, the antiblackout or abdominal belt,
        intended for use by pilots in dive bombing and
        other violent maneuvers, was returned to a
        developmental status with a finding by the Commander
        Aircraft, Battle Force, that the advantages of this
        belt were not sufficient to offset its

In 1959, X-15 (No. 1) (s/n 56-6670) research airplane made
        its first glide flight with A. Scott Crossfield as
        pilot, after being carried by the B-52 mother ship
        to an altitude of 38,000 feet.

In 1960, XLR-99 engine mounted in X-15 (No. 3) during
        test-stand runs by the contractor exploded, which
        damaged aircraft but did not injure contractor's
        test pilot in the cockpit.

In 1961, a small rocket lift device was demonstrated
        publicly for the first time at Fort Eustis, Va., a
        rocket belt developed by Bell Aerosystems, which
        lifted Harold M. Graham in a controlled free flight
        to an altitude of 15 feet and a standup landing 150
        feet from his starting point.

                          June 9

In 1916, Lieutenant R. C. Saufley, on an endurance flight in
        the AH-9 over Santa Rosa Island off Pensacola,
        crashed to his death after being in the air 8 hours
        and 51 minutes.

In 1921, the NACA authorized construction of compressed-air
        wind tunnel (20 atmospheres) with a 5-foot test
        section at Langley Aeronautical Laboratory.

In 1938, the British Government announced intention to
        purchase U.S. Lockheed Hudsons and North American
        Harvards for aerial reconnaissance and training

In 1944, China: Fourteenth Air Force B-25s, P-40s and P-51s
        fly more than 200-sorties during the day against
        numerous targets in the Tungting Lake Region.
        Meanwhile, B-24s of the 308th Bombardment Group
        (Heavy) attack Japanese shipping in the South China

In 1961, the first delivery of a C-135 made to MATS.

In 1970, Sikorsky pilot James R. Wright and copilot Colonel
        Henry Hart, USMC, flying a Marine Corps CH-53D,
        established a New York to Washington record for
        helicopters of 156.43 m.p.h. with an elapsed time of
        one hour, 18 minutes and 41.4 seconds from downtown
        to downtown. The following day they established a
        New York to Boston record for helicopters of
        162.72 miles per hour with a city to city time of
        one hour, nine minutes, 23.9 seconds.

                          June 10

In 1922, Guglielmo Marconi of Italy stated that an apparatus
        could be designed to transmit radio waves from one
        ship in any desired direction and pick up
        reflections from another ship in a receiver, a
        device which would "thereby immediately reveal the
        presence and bearing of the other ship in fog or
        thick weather."

In 1943, Aleutian Islands: Seven B-24s and eight B-25s of
        the 28th Composite Bomb Group along with twelve
        P-40s of the 343rd Fighter Group attack Japanese
        positions on Kiska and Little Kiska.

In 1948, the Air Force confirmed repeated attainment of
        supersonic speeds by X-1 (formerly XS-1) flown by
        Capt. C. E. Yeager.

In 1949, Southern Airways' first scheduled flight takes to
        the skies. Southern Flight 1, with Capt. George
        Bradford at the controls, offers DC3 service from
        Atlanta to Memphis, with intermediate stops in
        Gadsden, Birmingham and Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and
        Columbus, Mississippi. Southern Airways begins
        operations with 39 employees and headquarters in

In 1960, seven helicopters of HS-4 from Yorktown rescued 53
        merchant seamen from the British freighter Shun Lee
        which was breaking up on Pratas Reef, 500 miles
        northwest of Manila. Under storm conditions in the
        wake of typhoon Mary, the helicopter took 25 men
        from the wreck and 28 more from Pratas Island inside
        the reef.

In 1995, piloted by Brig. Gen. Marcotte, B2 Spirit of
        Missouri traveled nonstop from Whiteman AFB to Paris
        to conduct a flyover at the internationally famous
        Paris Air Show. The B-2 did land at Paris for an
        hour where, with its engines still running, changed
        crews and flew back to Missouri. The 11-hour
        flight to and 13-hour flight back to Whiteman marked
        the longest flights ever made by the B-2 fleet to

                          June 11

In 1920, the NACA's own program of aeronautics research,
        conducted by its own staff in its own facilities,
        was begun with the first operation of the first NACA
        5-foot wind tunnel at Langley Laboratory.

In 1928, Friedrich Stamer made first manned rocket-powered
        flight in a tailless glider from the Wasserkuppe in
        the Rhun Mountains of Germany. Takeoff was made by
        elastic launching rope assisted by 44-pound thrust
        rocket, another rocket was fired while airborne, and
        a flight of about 1 mile was achieved. This flight
        was a part of experimentation directed by A.

In 1929, general standards for shielding aircraft engine
        ignition, essential to long range radio reception,
        were established at a conference held at the Bureau
        of Standards. Navy representatives included
        Lieutenant Commander A. I. Price from the Bureau of
        Aeronautics and C. B. Mirick and L. A. Hyland from
        the Naval Research Laboratory. Basic techniques for
        shielding airborne radio from ignition interference
        had been developed by a naval radio group at the
        Bureau of Standards at the close of World War I and
        had permitted some rather remarkable radio

In 1943, Solomon Islands: Lt(jg) Vernon E. Graham F4F-4
        pilot of VF-11 achieves "Ace-in-a-Day" status and
        receives the "Navy Cross" for shooting down five (5)
        A6M's in the Northwest section of the Russell Islands
        Group. Graham was born in Rocky Ford, Colorado in
        1919 and was a graduate of the Univserity of Colorado.

In 1948, the Chief of Naval Operations issued standards for
        training aviators as helicopter pilots and provided
        that helicopter pilots previously trained by the
        Coast Guard or VX-3 would retain their

In 1951, Navy D-558-II Douglas Sky-rocket, flown by test
        pilot William Bridgeman, set a new unofficial
        airplane speed and altitude record at Edwards AFB,
        Muroc Dry Lake, Calif.; speed estimated at more than
        1,200 mph; altitude estimated 70,000 feet.

In 1955, delivery and flight test of experimental
        all-magnesium F-80C aircraft, built to test weight
        and strength of magnesium alloys, at
        Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.

                           June 12

In 1913, Secretary of the Navy approved detailing Assistant
        Naval Constructor J. C. Hunsaker to the
        Massachusetts Institute of Technology to develop "a
        course of lectures and experiments on the design of
        aeroplanes and dirigibles, and to undertake research
        in that field." After making a tour of aeronautical
        research facilities in Europe, Hunsaker participated
        in establishing a course of aeronautical engineering
        at M.I.T., in the Department of Naval Architecture.

In 1919, a contract was issued for the construction of a
        revolving platform at Hampton Roads for use in
        experimental development of techniques and equipment
        for landing aircraft aboard ship.

In 1922, Captain A. W. Stevens (USAS) made record parachute
        jump from 24,200 from a supercharged Martin bomber
        over McCook Field.

In 1922, Smithsonian Institution scientists utilized Navy
        seaplanes in mollusk research in Florida waters,
        completing in days what would otherwise have
        required a year.

In 1923, Lieutenant (jg) M. A. Schur, flying a DT-2 Douglas
        torpedo plane powered with a Liberty engine, set
        three FAI Class C-2 world records at San Diego with
        a duration mark of 11 hours, 16 minutes, 59 seconds,
        a distance mark of 792.25 miles, and a speed of
        70.49 m.p.h. for 1,000 kilometers.

In 1925, Daniel Guggenheim donated $500,000 toward
        establishment of a School of Aeronautics at New York

In 1934, Air Mail Act of 1934 signed by the President.

In 1944, Suburbs, London, England: the "First German V-1 Buzz
        Bomb Strike on England". Germany began the use of what
        would be a very unique, very deadly, and historical
        weapon called the V-1 The 'V' stood for Vergeltungswaffe
        which meant "Retaliatory Weapon". Better known to
        Londoners as "Buzz Bombs" or "Doodlebugs," these flying
        bombs made a very distinct sound as they flew overhead
        at low altitude, before the timing mechanisms expired,
        and they fell to earth.

In 1951, two PB4Y-2's of VP-772 were transferred from NAS
        Atsugi, Japan, to Pusan to fly flare dropping
        missions for Marine Corps night attack aircraft. The
        success of the operation, which was conducted as an
        experiment, was such that the practice of assigning
        specially equipped patrol aircraft for this purpose
        was continued.

In 1961, NASA's Incentive Awards Committee determined that
        Dr. Henry J. E. Reid, Director Emeritus of the
        Langley Research Center, would receive NASA's
        Outstanding Leadership Medal.

In 1994, the first flight of the Boeing 777 -200

In 2003, the retirement flight for Air France Concorde
       F-BVFA which was flown non-comercially to the
       Smithsonian Aircraft Center at Dulles Airport.
       It has been donated by Air France to the
       Smithsonian's new Air and Space Museum Facility
       at Dulles.

       F-BVFA was the first Concorde to join Air France's
       fleet (Dec 18, 1975). In Jan 1976, AF launched its
       supersonic service using this aircraft on the
       Paris - Dakar, Senegal - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil route.
       F-BVFA accomplished a round-the-world trip from
       Jan 11 to Feb 1, 1998, travelling 51,665 km in
       41 hours, 27 minutes, including 19 hours, 20 minutes
       at supersonic speed. The aircraft totaled 17,824
       flight hours and completed 6,967 flights.

                          June 13
In 1913, Lieutenant (jg) P. N. L. Bellinger, flying the
        Curtiss A-3 at Annapolis, set an American altitude
        record for seaplanes, reaching 6,200 feet.

In 1918, the first American-built aircraft to be assembled
        in France, an HS-1, made its first flight at
        Pauillac, piloted by Lieutenant C. P. Mason, USN,
        with Commander J. B. Patton, USN, and Lieutenant W.
        B. Jameson, USNRF, as passengers.

In 1923, at San Diego, Lieutenant R. A. Ofstie, in a TS
        seaplane equipped with a Lawrance J-1 engine, set
        FAI Class C-2 world speed records for 100
        and 200 kilometers with speeds of 121.95 and
        121.14 m.p.h., respectively.

In 1933, a contract for the development of special radio
        equipment for making blind landings aboard carriers
        was issued to the Washington Institute of

In 1942, Loran, long range navigation equipment, was given
        its first airborne test. The receiver was mounted in
        the K-2 airship and, in a flight from NAS Lakehurst,
        accurately determined position when the airship was
        over various identifiable objects. The test
        culminated with the first Loran homing from a
        distance 50 to 75 miles offshore during which the
        Loran operator, Dr. J. A. Pierce, gave instructions
        to the airship's commanding officer which brought
        them over the shoreline near Lakehurst on a course
        that caused the commanding officer to remark, "We
        weren't [just] headed for the hangar." We were
        headed for the middle of the hangar." The success of
        these tests led to immediate action to obtain
        operational Loran equipment.

In 1942, the first test of the German A-4 (V-2) rocket was
        unsuccessful at Peenemunde, Germany.

In 1945, a ramjet engine produced power in supersonic flight
        in a test conducted by the Applied Physics
        Laboratory at Island Beach, N.J. The ramjet unit was
        launched by a booster of four 5-inch high velocity
        aircraft rockets and achieved a range of 11,000
        yards, nearly double that of similarly launched,
        cold units.

In 1961, NASA Engineer Test Pilot Joseph A. Walker, who hit
        record altitude of 169,600 feet on March 30 and
        record speed of 3,300 miles per hour on May 25 in
        the X-15, received the 1961 Octave Chanute Award at
        IAS meeting in Los Angeles.

In 1961, Freedom 7 Mercury capsule displayed to
        approximately 750,000 visitors at the Rassegna
        International Electronic and Nuclear Fair at Rome,

In 1963, Lieutenant Commanders R. K. Billings and R. S.
        Chew, Jr., of NATC Patuxent, piloting F-4A Phantom
        and F-8D Crusader aircraft made the first fully
        automatic carrier landings with production equipment
        on board Midway off the California coast. The
        landings, made "hands off" with both flight
        controls and throttles operated automatically by
        signals from the ship, highlighted almost 10 years
        of research and development and followed by almost
        6 years the first such carrier landing made with
        test equipment. This would become operational as

                       June 14

                       Flag Day

Wilbert Vere Awdry:  born June 14, 1911
        Clergyman who created Thomas the Tank Engine
In 1912, Cpl Vernon Burge becomes Army's first enlisted

In 1917, the establishment of patrol stations along the
        Atlantic coast was implemented as the first contract
        for base construction was let. The contract covered
        sites on Long Island located at Montauk, Rockaway
        and Bay Shore.

In 1919, the first nonstop flight across the Atlantic was
        flown from Newfoundland to Ireland, a total of
        1,936 miles.  It was accomplished by Capt.
        John Alcock and Lt. A. W. Brown of England in a
        Vickers-Vimy-2 Rolls 400, in 15 hours 57 minutes.

                         June 15

In 1846, the US and Britain signed a treaty settling a
         boundary dispute between Canada and the US in
         the Pacific Northwest.

In 1864, Arlington National Cemetary was established.

In 1936, Vickers Wellington prototype RAF bomber made its
        first flight. The first flight of the production
        model was made on December 23, 1937.

In 1940, Congress revised its previous action and set the
        aircraft ceiling at 10,000 useful airplanes,
        including 850 for the Naval Reserve, and not more
        than 48 useful airships.

In 1943, the first flight of the Arado Ar 234 Vi Blitz, the
        world's first operational jet bomber

In 1980, a loading demonstration of the F/A-18 Hornet was
        held at NATC Patuxent River. The aircraft showed off
        some of its weapons capabilities, among them the
        20mm Vulcan cannon, AIM-7F advanced Sparrow, AIM-9L
        Sidewinder, flare dispensers, rocket launchers,
        advanced fuel-air explosives, and a Rockeye and
        other bombs. Hornet weaponry also included Walleye,
        Maverick, Harpoon and Harm missiles, and
        laser-guided bombs.

                       June 16

Arthur Stanley Jefferson:  born June 16, 1890
        aka Stan Laurel; half of Laurel and Hardy comedy

In 1909, according to "Brainy History", Glenn Curtiss made the
        first commercial aicraft sale for $5000. Perhaps
        one of our resident historians can verify and add details.

In 1921, two CR-1 Curtiss racers were ordered, the first of
        the series with which Navy and Army fliers captured
        many world speed records.

In 1922, Henry Berliner made his first helicopter flight at
        College Park, Md.

In 1922, Lt. C. L. Bissell (USAS) began a series of night
        cross-country flights between Bolling Field, D.C.,
        and Langley Field, Va.

In 1926, the Bureau of Aeronautics reported that the
        emergency barricade on Langley had successfully
        prevented landing aircraft from crashing into planes
        parked on the flight deck.

In 1928, successful tests were made of superchargers
        designed to give sea level pressure at 30,000 feet
        and a new liquid-oxygen system for high-altitude
        flying, at Wright Field. Lt. William H. Bleakly in
        XCO-5 made flight to 36,509 feet and remained there
        18 minutes.

In 1931, Gyorgy (George) Endresz pilot and Sandor (Alex)
        Magyar navigator flew across the Atlantic Ocean from
        Grace Harbor to Bicske, near Budapest, Hungary,
        non-stop. Their airplane was named "Justice for
        Hungary" and did the flight in 25 hrs 40 min.
        Endresz died less than a year later when flying to Rome
        to the Congress of the Ocean Pilots, on May 21, 1932.
        He, with his navigator Gyula Bitai, crash-landed and
        both died on the Littoria airport. (Engine failure).

In 1942, Congress authorized an increase in the airship
        strength of the Navy to 200 lighter-than-air craft.

In 1945, the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, was
        established under a commander responsible for
        aviation test functions formerly assigned to NAS
        Patuxent River.

In 1956, the first flight of the Mikuyan-Gurevich MIG-21

In 1958, Phase I development contract for Dyna-Soar boost
        -glide orbital spacecraft awarded by USAF to two
        teams of contractors headed by Martin Co. (Bell,
        American Machine & Foundry, Bendix, Goodyear, and
        Minneapolis-Honeywell) and the Boeing Co. (Aerojet,
        General Electric, Ramo-Wooldridge, North American,
        and Chance Vought).

In 1959, a P4M Mercator, on routine flight over
        international waters off Korea, was fired upon by
        two MiGs. The attack wounded one crewman and so
        damaged the plane that it made an emergency
        landing at Miho, Japan, with both starboard engines
        and some of the flight controls inoperative.

In 1963, Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, the first
        woman in space, is launched into a three-day orbital
        flight aboard Vostok 6 to study the problem of

In 1990, the first flight of the British Aerospace 1000.

                        June 17

In 1910, the CAC closes its factory as McCurdy leaves to
        become a barnstormer for Glenn Curtiss's company.

In 1917, a joint Army-Navy Mission (called the Bolling
        Mission after its senior member, Major R. C.
        Bolling), of which the Navy members were Commander
        G. C. Westervelt and Lieutenant W. G. Child, sailed
        for Europe to study air developments among the
        Allies and recommend a policy and program for the
        American air services.

In 1925, a Naval Air Detail, under Lieutenant Commander R.
        E. Byrd of the MacMillan Expedition, sailed from
        Boston with three Loening amphibians.
        Bowdoin joined Peary off Wiscasset, Maine,
        and after a 3,000-mile voyage, the expedition
        reached Etah in North Greenland on 1 August to
        begin an aerial exploration of the area that covered
        30,000 square miles before the end of the month.

In 1926, the first flight of the Junkers W-33 (c/n 794).

In 1942, a contract was awarded to Goodyear for the design
        and construction of a prototype model M scouting and
        patrol airship with 50 percent greater range and
        volume (625,000 cu. ft.) than the K Class. Four
        model M airships were procured and placed in service
        during World War II.

In 1946, the first meeting of the AAF Scientific Advisory
        Board met in the Pentagon, chaired by Theodore von

In 1947, Princeton University started construction of
        4,000-mph wind tunnel.

In 1947, the Navy awarded a contract to Douglas for design
        study and engineering data for a deltawinged
        fighter. On the basis of the technical information
        thus obtained, the Navy subsequently initiated
        development of the XF4D-1.

In 1951, postwar research on high-speed, jet-propelled
        seaplanes had progressed to the point that a
        contract was issued to Convair for development of a
        delta-winged, hydro-ski equipped research
        seaplane with fighter characteristics. Through
        subsequent redesign, the aircraft became the XF2Y-1.

In 1955, the first flight of the Tupolev Tu-104

In 1977, the first flight of the Mitsubishi F-1.

In 1983, STS-7 was launched with the first US female
        astronaut aboard, Sally Ride.

                        June 18

In 1920, a reversible pitch propeller designed by Seth Hart
        and manufactured by the Engineering Division, Army
        Air Service was installed on the C-10 airship at
        Rockaway Beach. That same month a Hart reversible
        pitch propeller was ordered for the VE-7.

Ben Rich:  born June 18, 1925
        Aviation engineer; helped develop over 25 planes at
        Lockheed including the F-117A              
In 1928, Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly across
        the Atlantic, completing a flight as a passenger from
        Newfoundland to Wales in about 21 hours.

In 1951, the ZPN-1 airship made its first flight.

In 1952, H. Julian Allen of NACA Ames Laboratory conceived
        the "blunt nose principle" which submitted that a
        blunt shape would absorb only one-half of 1 perecent
        of the heat generated by the reentry of a body into
        the earth's atmosphere. This principle was later
        significant to ICBM nose cone and the Mercury
        capsule development.

In 1959, six U.S. Navy enlisted men began an 8-day
        experiment in a simulated space cabin at the Air
        Crew Equipment Laboratory of the Naval Air Material
        Center at the Philadelphia Naval Base.

In 1967, the first scheduled "winter weather" flight to
        Antarctica was successfully completed when a
        Navy LC-130F of VX-6 flying from Christchurch,
        New Zealand, landed at Williams Field, 7 miles
        from McMurdo Station.

        Although earlier winter flights had been made to
        Antarctica as a result of medical emergencies, this
        was the first planned flight.

In 1977, the first manned, active, captive flight of the
        Enterprise OV-101 shuttle. Flight crew was Fred
        Haise and Charles "Gordo" Fullerton. Location was
        Edwards AFB. It flew for 55 minutes, 46 seconds.

In 1981, the first flight of the F-117A.

                        June 19

Sir George Arthur French:  born June 19, 1841
        Founder of the North West Mounted Rifles,
        predecessor of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police

In 1918, NAS Pensacola began taking upper atmospheric
        weather soundings to provide information on wind
        speed and direction, needed for navigational
        training flights. Recording instruments were
        carried aloft by a kite balloon, a technique
        developed by the station meteorological officer,
        Lieutenant W. F. Reed.

In 1943, Tunisia: A P-39 pilot of the 350th Fighter Group
        downs a reconnaissance Ju 88 just off the coast
        at 0745-hours.

In 1947, the world speed record regained by United States
        when P-80R flown by Col. Albert Boyd attained 623.8
        mph at Muroc, Calif.

In 1950, the Caroline Mars completed the 2,609-mile flight
        from Honolulu to San Diego with 144 men aboard for
        the largest passenger lift over the Pacific on

In 1959, a ZPG-3W, first of four airships designed for use
        in air warning patrol and largest non-rigid ever
        built, was delivered to NAS Lakehurst.

In 1961, Harmon International Aviator's Trophy for 1961
        announced as going to three winners for the first
        time-X-15 rocket research airplane pilots:  A. Scott
        Crossfield, of North American; Joseph A. Walker, of
        NASA, and Maj. Robert A. White, U.S. Air Force.

In 1961, Yuri Gagarin reported in Pravda that "I was in the
        center of a whirl of flames" when his Vostok
        spacecraft reentered the atmosphere on April 12. His
        book, "Road to Outer Space," was being serialized in

In 1961, the Legislature of the State of Alabama considered
        investment of $3 million in establishing a Space
        Research Institute at Huntsville as a joint
        University of Alabama and Auburn University center.

                       June 20

In 1913, Ensign W. D. Billingsley, piloting the B-2 at
        1,600 feet over the water near Annapolis, was thrown
        from the plane and fell to his death, the first
        fatality of naval aviation. Lieutenant J. H. Towers,
        riding as passenger, was also unseated but clung to
        the plane and fell with it into the water, receiving
        serious injuries.

In 1923, the initial flight of an all-metal airplane
        (Gallaudet)(CO-1) designed by Engineering Division
        at Wright Field.

In 1939, the first Heinkel He 176 flight was made, with
        Warsitz at the controls. The flight lasted 50
        seconds. The aircraft made a series of flights
        before being retired in 1944.

In 1941, Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall
        established the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF)
        under Army Regulation 95-5 with the "USAAC" and
        "GHQ-AF" as its principal parts (GHQ-AF was dissolved
        on 3/9/42). While that is the official date,
        the history of the service began long before 1941.
        Under the War Power Act of 1941, Marshall was
        permitted to create the U.S. Army Air Forces, with
        Major General H. H. Arnold as Chief.

        With this, the "U.S. Army Air Corps" became the
        singular subordinate element of the U.S. Army
        Air Forces and continued to exist as the primary
        combat arm of the U.S. Army until 1947. Until 1947,
        pilots of the USAAF officially were ... and
        considered themselves to be ... "Air Corps Pilots"
        not "Air Force[s] Pilots."

In 1943, Germany: Four hundred fifty 1st Bombardment Division
        B-17s attack oil and industrial targets at Hamburg;
        316 2nd Bombardment Division B-24s attack industrial
        targets at Politz and Osstemoor; 284 3rd Bombardment
        Division B-17s attack industrial targets at Fallerslaben,
        Konigsburg and Magdeburg; 169 3rd Bombardment Division
        B-24s attack oil targets at Hannover. Twenty B-24 crews
        of the 2nd Bombardment Divison are interned in Sweden.

        A quick count tells me there were over 1,200 planes in the
        air on this day in Germany. I never thought about the
        magnitude of air combat in WW-II. Does anyone have a
        guess as to how many active aircraft the US had in
        Europe? I'm thinking 1,200 aircraft over Germany
        they must have been wingtip to wingtip or they
        staged the flights at different times.

In 1944, Grumman Hellcats are victorious during the
         Battle of the Philippine Sea.

In 1945, --Fifth Wake Raid-- Three carriers of Task Group
        12.4 (Rear Admiral R. E. Jennings) began action
        against enemy positions on Wake Island.

In 1951, the first launching of USAF B-61 Martin Matador
        pilotless aircraft at Missile Test Center.

In 1951, Bell X-5 (No. 1) research airplane made first
        flight of 30 minutes at Edwards, Calif., with Jean
        Ziegler as pilot. This was first flight of an
        aircraft with variable-sweep, a USAF-NACA research
        project for investigation of various sweeps.

In 1952, a contract was issued for the construction of a
         slotted throat, 7 foot by 10 foot, transonic wind
         tunnel at the David Taylor Model Basin.

In 1963, the last student training flight in the P-5 Marlin
        by VT-31 at NAS Corpus Christi, marked the end of       
        the seaplane in the flight training program. The
        pilot and instructor was Lieutenant P. H. Flood; the
        student was Ensign A. J. Hupp.

In 1972, VMA(AW)-533 with A-6A Intruders arrived at the
        remote jungle base of Nam Phong, known as the "Rose
        Garden," in the east central plains of Thailand.
        Between 23 May and 18 June the following Marine
        Corps units had arrived: Task Force Delta; VMGR-152,
        Det "D" with KC-130 Hercules; H&MS-36, Det "D" with
        CH-46 Sea Knights; VMFA-115 with F-4B Phantom IIs
        and VMFA-232 with F-4J Phantom IIs.

In 1979, Lieutenant Dona Spruill became the first Navy woman
        pilot to carrier qualify in a fixed-wing aircraft.
        Lieutenant Spruill piloted a C-1A Trader to an
        arrested landing aboard Independence.

                        June 21

In 1908, Glen H. Curtiss pilots the A.E.A.'s June Bug
        biplane for its first three flights. Two weeks
        later, this aerodrome designed by Curtiss flew over
        a kilometre and won the first Scientific American
        Cup, presented by the Aero Club of America.
In 1912, Lieutenant T. G. Ellyson ascended 900 feet over
        Annapolis in 3 minutes and 30 seconds in the A-1.

In 1929, NACA special subcommittee held initial meeting at
        Langley on aeronautical research in universities.

In 1930, Randolph Field at San Antonio, Texas, was

In 1934, the first landings and takeoffs were made aboard
        Ranger by the ship's aviators led by Lieutenant
        Commander A. C. Davis. After completing normal
        operations, the ship went full speed astern and
        aircraft were landed into the bow arresting gear.

In 1936, first flight of the Handley Page Hampden bomber

In 1937, Patrol Squadron 3, with 12 PBY-1 Catalinas under
        the command of Lieutenant R. W. Morse, flew nonstop
        from San Diego to Coco Solo in the Canal Zone,
        completing the 3,292-mile flight in 27 hours and
        58 minutes.

In 1944, England: Major General Earle E. Partridge, formerly
        8th Air Force Deputy Commander, succeeds Major General
        Curtis E. LeMay as commanding officer of the 3rd
        Bombardment Division [8th Air Force] when "LeMay" is
        reassigned to the USAAF's B-29 Bomber Program.

In 1961, the Secretary of the Navy approved plans for
        terminating the lighter-than-air program that would
        disestablish all operational units by November, put
        eight of the 10 remaining airships in storage and
        inactivate the Overhaul and Repair shop at

In 1961, NASA Administrator Webb accepted one of the three
        President's Safety Awards for accident prevention
        during 1960. He pointed out that NASA's activities
        involved test flying of experimental aircraft,
        untried highly explosive fuels, high-voltage
        electricity, and highly pressurized air and
        superheated temperatures, in addition to rocket and
        spacecraft tests and launching and the operation of
        two nuclear reactors and a cyclotron.

In 1961, hypersonic wind tunnel at Douglas Aircraft became
        operational at El Segundo, reportedly the largest
        industry-owned tunnel in the United States (36
        inches long, 6-inch diameter, capable of mach 10).

                          June 22

In 1917, enlisted men of the First Aeronautic Detachment
        began preliminary flight training in Caudron
        landplanes under French instructors at the Military
        Aviation School, Tours, France. At about the same
        time, 50 men of the Detachment were sent to St.
        Raphael for training as mechanics.

In 1920, the Bureau of Navigation announced plans to select
        four officers for a two-year postgraduate course in
        aeronautical engineering at the Naval Academy and
        M.I.T., and asked for volunteers for the fall
        semester. Part of the requirement was that
        appointees take flight instruction and qualify as
        naval aviators after completing their studies.

In 1924, Lieutenants F. W. Wead and J. D. Price, in a
        Curtiss CS-2 equipped with one Wright T-3 Tornado
        engine, set five FAI Class C-2 world records 
        at Anacostia; one for distance with 963.123 miles;
        one for duration for 13 hours, 23 minutes,
        15 seconds; and three for speeds of 73.41 m.p.h. for
        500 kilometers, 74.27 m.p.h. for 1,000 kilometers,
        and 74.17 m.p.h. for 1,500 kilometers.

In 1927, John F. Victory, the first employee of NACA in
        1915, who had served as Assitant Secretary since
        1917, was appointed Secretary of the NACA.

In 1946, two Army P-80s made the first jet airmail delivery.

In 1948, flight training was opened to men between the ages
        of 18 and 25, with at least 2 years of college,
        under a plan that was in essence a reactivation of
        the Navy Aviation Cadet program. Candidates were
        required to serve on active duty for 4 years after
        which they would be returned to inactive duty as
        members of the Reserve, but a limited number were
        to be given the opportunity to remain on active
        duty with possibilities for transferring to the
        regular Navy. First of the new Aviation Cadets
        under this program reported for training in the
        latter part of August.

In 1954, the first flight of the McDonnell Douglas A-4

In 1955, the first flight of the Republic XF-84H
      (51--17059). It had a Allison XF-40-A-1 turboprop
      of 5,850 shaft hp and was originally called
      a XF-106.  This plane did set a propeller driven speed
      record of 670 mph which stands to this day.  It was
      not recip driven, and not FAI sanctioned.

      During ground tests inaudible sound waves nauseated
      everybody within hearing and drove dogs crazy for
      miles.  Its other claim to fame was that it was
      displayed on a pole outside the Bakersfield,
      California airport for thirty years.  It's now going
      to the US Air Force Museum.

In 1961, the Mercury-Redstone booster for MR-4 flight was
        erected on pad 5 at Atlantic Missile Range.

In 1973, the all-Navy crew of Skylab II astronauts was
        recovered after their 28-day mission in space by
        HC-1 and flown aboard Ticonderoga.

In 1977, the new OV-1OD Bronco series, undergoing test and
        evaluation at NATC's Strike Aircraft Test
        Directorate, Patuxent River, was equipped with a
        night vision sensor which allowed the two-man crew
        to pinpoint targets in the dark.

                        June 23

In 1924, the first "dawn-to-dusk" flight from New York to
        San Francisco, by Lt. R. L. Maugham in Curtis
        Pursuit (PW-8), with five stops en route.

In 1931, Wiley Post and Harold Gatty lowered world circling
        record to 8 days 15 hours 51 minutes in the Lockheed
        Winnie Mae. They completed the flight on July 1.

In 1933, Macon (ZRS-5), having made its first flight on 21
        April, was commissioned at Akron, Ohio, with
        Commander Alger H. Dressel as Commanding Officer.

In 1937, the US Army Air Corp accepts the Lockheed design
        for what was to become the P-38.
In 1938, President Roosevelt signed the Civil Air Authority
        Act, aka the Lea-McCarran Act or The Civil
        Aeronautics Act of 1938. 

In 1949, the first flight of the Douglas DC-3S (Super DC-3),
        the last DC-3 produced by Douglas. Capital Airlines 
        acquired three of these in 1949.  Note: 100 R4Ds
        (Navy) were modified to the DC-3S "Standard" and
        designated R4D-8. Also can be identified as the

        The last of the origianal DC-3 line was completed
        at Santa Monica in mid-March 1947. The very last
        DC-3 of that (old line)was sold to Sabena (Belgian)
        Airlines and was registered OO-AWH. That "last bird"
        was destroyed in a crash at London Heathrow on
        2 March 1948.

In 1950, the first run of rocket-propelled research sled
        made on the 3,550-foot track at Holloman Air Force

In 1953, Lieutenant Commander George H. Whisler, Jr., while
        attached to VR-31, completed the "first"
        transcontinental round-trip solo flight between
        sunrise and sunset. Lieutenant Commander Whisler
        departed NAS Norfolk at 0518 in an F9F-6 Cougar
        (bureau number 127432) and landed at NAS North
        Island at 0905 local time, after stops at NAS
        Memphis and Webb AFB, Texas. After 50 minutes on the
        ground Lieutenant Commander Whisler departed NAS
        North Island in an F3D-2 Skyknight (Bureau Number
        127076) headed for NAS Norfolk. He refueled
        at NAS Dallas and arrived at NAS Norfolk at 1921,
        local time.

In 1961, NASA-USAF-USN X-15 flown to 3,603 miles per hour
        (mach 5.3), record for manned aircraft by Maj.
        Robert White, U.S. Air Force, which was faster than
        a mile per second. Losing cabin pressure at 100,000
        feet, White was able to pilot the X-15 safely
        because of full-pressure suit. This was the fifth
        powered NASA flight with the XLR-99 engine.

In 1969, IBM announced "unbundling" (selling software
        instead if "giving it away free" with the hardware)
        and spawned an industry that probably is larger than
        the hardware industry, or at least about equal.

                          June 24

In 1943, on the maiden flight of N9M-2, the cockpit canopy of
        the aircraft flew off while in flight, but the pilot
        was able to land successfully. Nearly all the flight
        tests of the N9M's were shortened by mechanical
        failures of one kind or another, particularly with
        failures in the Menasco engines.

        The N9M's were two-engine single place minitures of
        the XB-35 "wing" design configuration.  The first
        three (of four prototypes) were initially powered
        by a pair of 290 hp Menasco C65-4 six-cylinder
        air-cooled engines each driving a pusher two-bladed
        propeller by means of an extension shaft via a
        fluid-drive coupler. The engines were cooled by air
        admitted by large under-wing scoops.

        Because the first three were judged to be underpowered,
        the fourth prototype was powered by two 300 hp
        8 cylinder Franklin 0-540-7 engines.  This fourth
        prototype aircraft is the one that was restored by
        the Air Museum Planes of Fame in Chino, CA.

In 1943, Lt. Col. W. R. Lovelace, AAF Aeromedical
        Laboratory, made world record parachute jump from
        40,200 feet at Ephrata, Wash.

In 1946, a contract was issued to North American Aviation,
        Inc., for the design and construction of three XAJ-1
        aircraft, thereby beginning active development of a
        long-range carrier-based bomber capable of
        delivering nuclear weapons.

In 1961, Mercury capsule was modified for MR-4 flight, with
        observation window replacing two viewports and with
        improved manual control system.

In 1964, Clara B. Johnson, PHC, of VU-7, was designated an
        aerial photographer and became the first Wave with
        the right to wear the wings of an aircrewman.

In 1969, the first operational "hands off" arrested landing
        using the AN/SPN-42, Automatic Carrier Landing
        System, on a carrier was performed by Lieutenant
        Dean Smith and Lieutenant (jg) James Sherlock of
        VF-103 when their Phantom II landed aboard
        Saratoga. AN/SPN-42 is an outgrowth of SPN-10 which
        was first tested in 1957 but was found not to meet
        all fleet requirements.

In 1976, the Navy accepted its first T-34C Mentor Aircraft.
        The new aircraft will replace the aging T-34B and
        T-28B/C used in primary and basic flight training.
        It will be the first training command aircraft to
        have maintenance and supply support provided by
        civilian contractors.

                       June 25

General Henry "Hap" Arnold:  born June 25, 1886
        Chief of the U.S.A.A. Forces during WW II. Arnold
        also remained Deputy Chief of Staff for the U.S.
        Army during WWII.

In 1919, NAS Anacostia reported experiments in which
        aircraft carried aloft instruments to measure
        temperature and humidity of the upper atmosphere.

In 1923, the first International Air Congress, London,
        England, 450 delegates from 17 nations attended.

In 1926, construction of full-scale propeller research wind
        tunnel at Langley Aeronautical Laboratory was
        initiated. It was the largest in the world (20 foot
        throat) and was completed in 1927.

In 1936, the first flight of the Bristol Blenheim M142
        "light bomber prototype".  It had not been named
        "Blenheim" until sometime in March of 1936.
        This was based on the Bristol 142 "civilian"
        transport and its features included different
        engines (Mercury VIII's), bomb bays, armament,
        different crew positions and increased tankage.  

In 1945, construction began at White Sands Proving Ground.

In 1946, a contract was issued to Chance Vought for the
        development and construction of three XF7U-1
        aircraft. This was a tailless, high performance
        fighter, equipped with tricycle landing gear,
        powered with twin turbojet engines, and designed for
        carrier operation.

In 1946, the first Northrop XB-35 (serial number 42-13603)
        took off on its maiden flight with Max Stanley as
        pilot and Dale Schroeder as flight engineer. On this
        first flight, the aircraft was flown from Hawthorne
        to Muroc Dry Lake, a flight lasting 45 minutes.
In 1950, North Koreans crossed the 38th Parallel and advanced
        on South Korea.  The North Koreans controlled 90%
        of the country by August, when they were halted by
        the South Korean and U.S. forces in the southeast.

        The allied Inchon landing headed by Gen. Douglas
        MacArthur in September 1950 became the turning point
        that nearly broke the North Korean Army, but massive
        Chinese intervention signaled another reversal and
        lead to a stalemate near today's border.

        An armistice was signed in July 1953. Approximately
        28,500 U.S. servicemembers remain in South Korea.

        In 2008, a South Korean government survey showed
        that many South Korean teens don't know who started
        the war.  To mark the anniversary in 2008, the
        United Nations Command Security Battalion joined
        South Korean soldiers in a five-mile march to
        remember the sacrifices of millions from 1950 to 1953.

In 1951, USAF Arnold Engineering Development Center at
        Tullahoma, Tenn., dedicated by President Truman, to
        test and evaluate supersonic aircraft and guided

In 1955, the first flight of the Dassault MD-550 Mirage I;
        powered by two Rolls Royce Viper engines.

                          June 26

In 1794, the French used a tethered ballon to observe the
        battlefield and direct artillary fire. This was at
        the "Battle of Fleurus." Observations of the Austrian
        Army positions from the balloon "Entreprenant" were
        made by Captain Coutelle at Maubeuge, Belgium.

Willy Messerschmitt:  born June 26, 1898
        Aviation engineer and designer; Messerschmitt

Wiliam Powell Lear:  born June 26, 1902
        Electrical engineer; founded Lear Jet Corp.

In 1922, the rigid airship Los Angeles (ZR-3) was ordered
        from the Zeppelin Airship Company, Friedrichshafen,
        Germany. This zeppelin, part of World War I
        reparations, was obtained as a non-military aircraft
        under the terms approved by the Allied Conference of
        Ambassadors on 16 December 1921.

In 1923, the first complete midair pipeline refueling
        between two airplanes, made by Lts. L. H. Smith and
        J. P. Richter (USA) at San Diego.

In 1928, Lieutenant Arthur Gavin, piloting a PN-12 powered
        with two Pratt & Whitney Hornet engines, set an FAI
        Class C-2 altitude record of 15,426 feet at
        Philadelphia with a payload of 2,000-kilograms.

In 1935, a coaxial helicopter constructed by Louis
        Br‚guet and Rene Dorand in France achieved the first
        flights of sustained duration.  The Br‚guet-Dorand
        314 incorporated many of the features developed for
        autogiros, such as collective and cyclic pitch

In 1940, Congress authorized construction of the third NACA
        laboratory near Cleveland, Ohio, which became
        Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory. In 1948, it was
        named for George W. Lewis, NACA Director of
        Aeronautical Research, 1924-47.

In 1942, scheduled Naval Air Transport Service operations
        between the West coast and Alaska were initiated by

In 1942, first flight of the Grumman Hellcat XF6F-1 shipboard
        fighter prototype.

In 1942, At 09.13 hours on 26 Jun, 1942, the unescorted Jagersfontein
        (Master Van der Esch) was hit by one of two torpedoes fired by
        U-107 about 500 miles west of Bermuda. The torpedo struck on
        the port side between #4 and #5 hold and destroyed the bulkhead.
        The explosion was weakend by the cargo of cotton. Distress
        signals were immediately sent and the master tried to reach
        Bermuda. The U-boat chased the ship on the surface but was forced
        to submerge by the aft 105mm gun of the vessel. But later her
        rudder jammed as the ship sank slowly by the stern and the engines
        broke down at 12.15 hours. So the ship was abandoned by the 108
        crew members, 14 gunners and 98 passengers (86 US Army officers
        and 12 civilians, among them women and children) in four

        One of the boats had a transmitter, which led the Swiss steam
        merchant St.Cergue to them on 27 June. The same day, an
        American destroyer took the 86 officers and 14 gunners off
        the Swiss ship, which continued with the remaining survivors
        to Gibraltar, arriving on 7 July.

In 1943, the first flight of the Boeing YB-29 Superfortress
       (41-36954). Fourteen service test aircraft were built
        at the Boeing plant at Wichita, Kansas as YB-29. 
        Engines were four R-3350-21s, still driving three-
        bladed propellers.

In 1946, the Aeronautical Board agreed unanimously that the
        knot and the nautical mile be adopted by the Army
        Air Forces and Navy as standard aeronautical units
        of speed and distance, and directed that use of the
        terms be specified in all future procurement of air
        speed indicators, charts, related equipment, and
        future issues of applicable handbooks and
        technical orders.

In 1948, the Berlin airlift began, which continued until
        September 30, 1949, although the Russians ended
        their blockade of the city on May 12, 1949.
        2,343,000 tons of supplies were airlifted on
        277,000 flights.

In 1958, a TF-1, of VR-21 at San Diego, delivered a J-34
        engine to Yorktown 300 miles at sea, in the first
        delivery of an aircraft engine by carrier-on-board
        delivery (COD).

In 1964, an LC-130F Hercules, commanded by Lieutenant Robert
        V. Mayer of VX-6, completed a round-trip flight from
        Christchurch, New Zealand, to Antarctica in an
        emergency evacuation of petty officer B. L.
        McMullen, critically injured in a fall. Two
        planes, with teams of medical specialists on board,
        flew from NAS Quonset Point to Christchurch where
        one plane stood by while the other undertook the
        hazardous flight.

In 2000, Leonardo Da Vinci was proven right, over 500 years
        after he sketched the design for the first parachute.
        A British man dropped from a hot air balloon 10,000
        feet above the ground, ignoring expert advice that
        the canvas and wood contraption would not fly.  The
        parachute weighed 187 pounds!  The jumper cut himself
        free when he reached 2,000 ft and deployed a second
        modern parachute, to ensure the heavy device did not
        crash down on top of him on landing.

        The original design was scribbled by Da Vinci in a
        notebook in 1483. An accompanying note read: "If a man
        is provided with a length of gummed linen cloth with a
        length of 12 yards on each side and 12 yards high, he
        can jump from any great height whatsoever without

                      June 27

Juan T. Trippe:  born June 27, 1899
        Pioneer in Commercial aviation; one of the founders
        of the company that became Pan Am              
In 1911, Lieutenant (jg) J. H. Towers, who became Naval
        Aviator No. 3, reported for duty and instruction in
        flying at the Curtiss School, Hammondsport, N.Y.

In 1928, Lieutenant Arthur Gavin, in a PN-12 equipped with
        two 525-hp. Pratt & Whitney engines, made an FAI
        Class C-2 record altitude flight of 19,593 feet at
        Philadelphia with a useful load of l,000 kilograms.

In 1929, Capt. Frank Hawks broke transcontinental speed
        records from East to West and West to East flying
        the Lockheed Air Express.

In 1931, patent 1,994,488 was granted to Igor Sikorsky for
        the first practical helicopter.

In 1940, the Army issued contracts for preliminary
        engineering data for the new "superbomber" to four
        manufacturers, which were designated in order of
        preference as Boeing XB-29, Lockheed XB-30, Douglas
        XB-31, and Consolidated XB-32.

In 1942, the Naval Aircraft Factory was directed to
        participate in the development of high altitude
        pressure suits with particular emphasis upon testing
        existing types and obtaining information so that
        they could be tailored and fitted for use in flight.
        The Navy thus joined the Army which had sponsored
        earlier work on pressure suits.

In 1952, the first glide flight of X-2 (No. 2) research
        airplane, by Jean "Skip" Ziegler, Bell test pilot.
        He was killed in an explosion of the X-2 during a
        test flight on May 12, 1953.

In 1957, Lieutenant Commander Malcolm D. Ross and Charles B.
        Moore of the Arthur D. Little Co., successfully
        completed a Stratolab balloon flight to investigate
        the interior of a thunderstorm, ascending from the
        top of Mount Withington near Socorro, New Mexico,
        into the towering cumulus cloud above the mountain.
        The flight was the first of a series conducted
        during the summer under the sponsorship of the
        Office of Naval Research and the Bureau of

In 1962, the 30th flight of X-15 #1, 56-6670, set a world
        speed record of Mach 5.92 with Walker as pilot.

                     June 28

Carl Spaatz:  born June 28, 1891
        The first Chief of Staff of the US Air Force

In 1919, signing of Treaty of Versailles disarmed Germany of
        a military air force but did not include rockets as
        potential weapons, thus leaving Germany free under
        international law to develop them.  It also didn't
        include gliders - which led to Germany being the
        leading glider country in the world.

In 1920, the NACA formally encouraged the Army and Navy to
        detail officers to the Massachusetts Institute of
        Technology for aeronautical engineering study and
        offered use of its facilities and personnel to
        further research and experimental work outside of

In 1920, six F5L's of the Atlantic Fleet Airboat Squadron,
        commanded by Lieutenant Commander B. G. Leighton,
        returned to Philadelphia completing a seven-month
        cruise through the West Indies on which the squadron
        logged 12,731 nautical miles, including 4,000 flown
        on maneuvers with the Fleet.

In 1927, Lieutenants Lester J. Maitland and Albert F.
        Hegenberger completed a monumental flight in the
        Fokker C-2 Bird of Paradise from Oakland,
        California, to Hawaii.  This was the first
        successful flight between the U.S. Mainland and

In 1934, Boeing won a "Project A" contract of $609,300 for
        the construction of one (1) XB-15.

In 1944, Mariana Islands: VF(N)-101 F4U night-fighter pilots
        down 3 G4M "Bettys" between 2015 and 2245 hours. IJN
        aircraft from Truk and Iwo Jima mount ineffective night
        attacks against U.S. Navy ships in the area.

In 1945, the first flight of the Cessna Model 120.

In 1957, the first phase of Project Far Side was completed,
        with the lifting by the world's largest balloon of a
        load of over a ton of military equipment and
        instruments to a height of more than 104,000 feet.

In 1960, the Smithsonian Institution awarded its highest
        honor, the Langley Medal, to Robert H. Goddard

In 1961, the first showing of new Soviet aircraft in flight
        rehearsal for an air show on July 9 in Moscow (first
        major air show since 1956), one a large delta-wing
        jet bomber perhaps comparable to the B-58, as well
        as a turboprop Bear Tu-114 carrying missiles.

In 1977, the second manned, active, captive flight of the
        Enterprise OV-101 shuttle. Flight crew was Joe
        Engle and Dick Truly. Location was Edwards
        AFB. It flew for 1 hour 2 minutes.

                       June 29

Antoine de Saint Exupery:  born June 29, 1900
        Aviator and Author; The Little Prince

In 1927, Commander Richard Byrd, Bertram B. Acosta, Noville,
        and B. Balchen flying the Fokker monoplane America,
        departed from New York on a flight across the
        Atlantic. The flight reached Paris on July 1, but
        because of weather could not land there. They
        returned to the coast of Normandy and the pilot,
        Bernt Balchen, put it down in the shallow water.
        Total flight time was 46 hours and the plane was
        carrying 150 pounds of mail.

In 1942, following an inspection of Igor I. Sikorsky's
        VS-300 helicopter on 26 June, Lieutenant Commander
        F. A. Erickson, USCG, recommended that helicopters
        be obtained for antisubmarine convoy duty and

In 1943, NAS Patuxent River began functioning as an aircraft
        test organization with the arrival of the Flight
        Test unit from NAS Anacostia.

In 1944, the Parachute Experimental Division was established
        at Lakehurst, N.J., for research, development, and
        testing of parachutes and survival gear.

In 1949, the YF-94 made its first flight.

In 1955, the first B-52B (52-8711) was delivered to the 93rd
        Bombardment Wing at Castle AFB in California. Over
        the next few months, the 93rd BW traded in its B-47s
        for B-52Bs, and changed its name to the 93rd
        Bombardment Wing (Heavy).
In 1962, the first flight of the Vickers VC-10 (1100).

                       June 30

In 1918, the first Navy pilots of the Night Wing, Northern
        Bombing Group, to take special training with British
        units, marked the completion of their course by
        participating as observers in a night bombing raid
        by RAF Squadron 214.

In 1928, a contract was issued to the Martin Company for
        development of the XT5M-1 "diving bomber," which, in
        a later production version, became the BM-1. This
        aircraft and the Naval Aircraft Factory's similar
        XT2N-1 were the first dive bombers designed to
        deliver a 1,000-pound bomb.

In 1932, the Los Angeles, (ZR-3), was decommissioned by the
        Navy for economy reasons after 8 years of service
        and over 5,000 hours in the air. In 1932, the
        Los Angeles (ZR-3), German built (LZ-126), was
        decommissioned by the Navy for economy reasons
        after 8-years of service and over 5,000 hours
        in the air.

In 1937, the Navy issued a contract to Martin for XPBM-1
        two-engine flying boat, the initial prototype for
        the PBM Mariner series used during and after World
        War II.

In 1939, the first flight of the Heinkel He 176, the first
        all-rocket-powered aircraft. Rocket power lasted
        less than 1 minute, aircraft barely gets off the
        ground. German Air Ministry technical chief and
        fighter ace Ernst Udet says "That's no airplane -
        I prohibit any more flights!"  The He 176 is
        crated and sent to the Berlin Air Museum.

In 1941, turboprop engine development was initiated as a
        joint Army-Navy project, with a Navy contract to
        Northrop Aircraft for the design of an aircraft gas
        turbine developing 2,500 hp. at a weight of less
        than 3,215 pounds.

In 1942, Brig. General James H. Doolittle awarded the 1942
        Guggenheim Medal "for notable achievement in the
        advancement of aeronautics."

In 1951, the United States terminated its V-2 Program, 67
        V-2's having been flown since the first American
        launch of a V-2 on April 16, 1946.

In 1957, a program to gather daily weather data over the
        Pacific, North America, and the Atlantic by the use
        of transosonde balloons was inaugurated with the
        release of the first balloon from NAS Iwakuni,
        Japan. Set to float at 30,000 feet, the balloons
        carried instruments which reported pressure and
        temperature every two hours. The duration of each
        flight was planned for from 5 to 8 days with the
        termination point somewhere in the Atlantic, short
        of the European coast.

In 1961, Dr. Henry J. E. Reid, senior staff associate and
        former Director of the Langley Research Center,
        retired after over four decades of Government
        service. He began as a junior engineer at Langley in
        April 1921, became Director in 1926, in which
        capacity he served for 34 years.

In 1968, the first flight of the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy.

In 1976, a Naval Aviator tradition came to an end when brown
        shoes were stricken from the officers' and chiefs'
        uniforms. The tradition initially distinguished the
        Brown Shoe Navy of the aviators from the black shoes
        of the surface officers.