This Day in Aviation History Files, compiled by Don Kutter on the AVSIG forum at

                     January 1

                  Happy New Year!

Albert Hoyt Taylor:  born January 1, 1874
        Physicist and Radio Engineer; first demonstration of
        pulsed radar system in 1934 while working for the
        Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC.

John Cantius Garand:  born January 1, 1888
        Machinist responsible for developing the M1 Garand
        rifle. Born in St. Remi Quebec, moved to Connecticut
        as a child. Started work in a textile mill. Promoted
        to machinist. Worked for Springfield Armory when he
        designed the M1 rifle. Prototypes were refined during
        the 20's and 30's. Officially adopted by the US military
        in 1932 but did not enter formal service until 1936.

In 1913, the International Federation of Aeronautics in
        Paris says that by the end of 1912, nearly 2,500 FAI
        pilots' licenses have been issued.  The breakdown:

                France          966
                Britain         382
                Germany         345
                United States   193
                Belgium          58
                Switzerland      27
                Egypt             1

In 1914, the first U.S. scheduled airline passenger service
        operated by an airline company begins. At 10:00 AM,
        the Airboat Line, operated by Anthony Janus, flies
        its first passenger (Mr. A.C, Pheil, former Mayor
        of St. Petersburg) from St Petersburg to Tampa, FL.
        The fare for the 22 mile flight was $5 with a
        surcharge if the passenger was over 200 lbs.
In 1918, the Experimental and Test Department at Pensacola
        was transferred to NAS Hampton Roads to overcome
        difficulties arising from the remoteness of the
        former location from the principal manufacturing and
        industrial areas.

In 1926, Henry J. E. Reid appointed Engineer-in-Charge of
        NACA Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, a
        post held until July 1960, when he retired as
        Director of NASA's Langley Research Center.

In 1927, a flight test section was established as a separate
        department at NAS Anacostia with Lieutenant G. R.
        Henderson in charge.

In 1927, to test the feasibility of using enlisted pilots in
        fleet squadrons, VF Squadron 2, manned with four
        Naval Aviators and 10 Aviation Pilots, was put into
        commission at San Diego, Lieutenant Commander J. M.
        Shoemaker commanding.

In 1929, (through January 7), an unofficial endurance record
        for refueled airplane flight was set by Maj. Carl A.
        "Tooey" Spaatz, Capt. Ira C. Eaker, and Lt. Elwood
        Quesada in the Question Mark, Fokker C2-3 Wright
        220, over Los Angeles Airport, with flying time of
        150 hours 45 minutes 14 seconds.

In 1937, the first physiological research laboratory was
        completed at Wright Field by the Air Corps to
        investigate and devise a means to alleviate
        distressing symptoms occurring in flight.

In 1943, Naval Reserve Aviation Bases (NRAB) engaged in
        Primary Flight Training in all parts of the country
        were redesignated Naval Air Stations (NAS) without
        change of mission. This was the end of the NRAB's
        except for Anacostia, which was abolished on 7 July
        1943, and Squantum which became an NAS on
        1 September 1943.

In 1943, Ground Controlled Approach equipment (GCA) was
        called into emergency use for the first time when a
        snowstorm closed down the field at NAS Quonset Point
        a half hour before a flight of PBYs was due to
        arrive. The GCA crew located the incoming aircraft
        on their search radar, and using the control tower
        as a relay station, "talked" one of them into
        position for a contact landing. This recovery was
        made only 9 days after the first successful
        experimental demonstration of GCA. The testing was
        done at NAS Columbia, S.C. with the participation of
        NOR chief pilot Capt. Art Hinke using NH-2s.

Don Novello:  born January 1, 1943
        aka Father Guido Sarducci from Saturday Night Live

In 1944, the US Strategic Air Forces in Europe was

In 1950, Mary T. Sproul commissioned as first female doctor
        in the US Navy.

In 1954, the certificate of navigability for the Comet is
        cancelled in England.  All Comet flights are

In 1959, the U.S. Naval Observatory introduces system of
        uniform atomic time using cesium beam atomic
        oscillators. This measurement has been adopted as
        standard by the International Committee on Weights
        and Measures.

In 1961, Project Ice Way was established near Thule by the
        Geophysics Research Directorate of the Cambridge
        Research Laboratories to test the feasibility of
        landing heavy aircraft on ice runways. The tests,
        completed in June 1961, demonstrated the strength
        and other engineering qualities of the ice runways
        constructed of natural sea water or reinforced with
        strands of Fiberglas.

In 1962, the first US Navy SEAL teams established

In 1964, the last three seaplane tenders under
        ComNavAirLant, Duxbury Bay, Greenwich Bay and
        Valcour, were transferred to Cruiser-Destroyer Force
        Atlantic. This transfer was the final step in the
        phaseout of patrol seaplanes in the Atlantic Fleet.

In 1988, the Strategic Air Command changes its missile crew
        assignment policy to allow mixed male/female crews
        in Minuteman and Peacekeeper launch facilities.

                  January 2

Louis-Charles Breguet:  born January 2, 1880
        born in Paris; developed a wind tunnel in 1905;
        produced his first aircraft, a biplane, in 1909;
        established a commercial air transportation
        company in 1919, Compagnie Des Messageries
        Avienne which now exists as Air France

In 1917, the British government establishes an Air Ministry.
        Lord Rothermere is Secretary of State for Air.
        Major General Sir Hugh Trenchard is Chief of the Air Staff.

Chalmers H. "Slick" Goodlin: born January 2, 1923
        Pioneer test pilot, humanitarian, businessman, born in
        Greensburg, Pennsylvania. He obtained his private pilot's
        license in 1939 and in 1941 joined the Royal Canadian
        Air Force (RCAF) as a trainee in preparation to join
        the war effort in England.  There he was assigned as an
        Instructor and Ferry pilot, but later flew Spitfires in

        He switched over to the US Navy as an instructor pilot
        in 1943 and flew most of the aircraft in the Navy's inventory.

        From 1944 - 1948 he flew for the Bell Aircraft Corporation
        as an engineering test pilot, flying 26 flights in the XS-1
        and the other Bell Aircraft of that time.  As test pilot
        for the XS-1 he was responsible for proving out and readying
        the aircraft for the USAF prior to their acceptance. He was
        also one of the very first jet licensed pilots in the US. 

        He joined the "Caterpillar Club" two times when bailing out
        of aircraft during test flights.  In 1946, at the first post
        war Air Races in Cleveland, he was the co owner and test
        pilot of a Bell Cobra II.

        During 1948 and 1949, Chal flew for the Israeli Air Force
        on combat duty and later became the chief test pilot for the
        IAF.  Later, when hostilities ceased, he flew DC-4's for
        Near East Air Transport on humanitarian missions, carrying
        thousands of Jewish refugees to Israel from Aden, Arabia
        and Germany.
        He then became involved with and ultimately Chairman and
        CEO of, the Burnelli Company.  The Burnelli Companies design
        was the first "flying wing" or lifting body design that was

        He is a nominee for the National Aviation Hall of Fame,
        was inducted into the Florida Aviation Hall of Fame, the
        American Rocket Society  (Honorary Member 1946),
        Commendation from the American Red Cross for Humanitarian
        Efforts in Nigerian Relief Operations & Biafra (1969),
        Niagara Frontier Aviation Hall of Fame (1987), Society for
        Experimental Test Pilots (Honorary Fellow 1991) & the
        Wright Brothers Memorial Award from the Greater Miami
        Aviation Association (1992).

        He enjoyed memberships in the Royal Aero Club, the Quiet
        Birdmen, the Caterpillar Club, the OX-5 Club, The Greater
        Miami Aviation Association as a Senior Member and the American
        Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

In 1942, the first organized lighter-than-air units of World
        War II, Airship Patrol Group 1, Commander George H.
        Mills commanding, and Airship Squadron 12,
        Lieutenant Commander Raymond F. Tyler commanding,
        were established at NAS Lakehurst.

In 1942, General Hap Arnold directed the establishment of a
        new numbered Air Force. Established as VIII Bomber
        Command on 19 January 1942. Activated on 1 February 1942
        at Langley Field, Virginia assigned to Air Force Combat
        Command. Moved to Savannah AB, Georgia, about 10 February
        1942. Moved Daws Hill, England, on 23 February 1942.
        Moved to High Wycombe, England, on 15 May 1942.
        Redesignated Eighth Air Force on 22 February 1944.

In 1946, special investigation of high temperature aluminium
        alloys begun by J. C. McGee, Wright Field engineer,
        which led by June 1947 to useful alloy known as
        "ML," named after the Materials Laboratory.

In 1953, Cessna Aircraft is declared the winner of the Air
        Force's primary jet trainer competition.  This
        Cessna, later designated the T-37, beat out 14 other

In 1959, the U.S.S.R. launched LUNIK I into a solar orbit,
        with a total weight of a reported 3,245 pounds, the
        first man-made object placed in orbit around the
        sun. It was called MECHTA ("dream") by the Russians

In 1989, the first flight of the Tupolev Tu-204. This is the
        Soviet Union's first aircraft with a fly-by-wire
        control system.

                   January 3

T. Claude Ryan:  born January 3, 1898
        born in Parsons, Kansas; learned to fly in 1921 at
        the US Air Service Flight School, March Field, CA;
        in 1922, established the Ryan Flying Company in
        San Diego, CA; first production aircraft, the M-2
        Mailplane, was the basis for the Spirit of St Louis;
        produced the Ryan ST in 1934 which evolved into the
        Army Air Force's PT-22 trainer.

In 1930, President Hoover made the presentation of the
        Collier Trophy for 1929 to Dr. Joseph S. Ames,
        Chairman of the NACA.

In 1939, a patent was issued for the "Geoffrey Gottlieb
        Kruesi Radio Direction Finder Pat. No. 2,142,133.
        Title: Radio Direction Finder Patent
        Assignee: United States Government
        Geoffrey G. Kruesi designed the first radio direction
        finder, pat. no. 1,820,004 in 1928, while working for
        the Federal Telegraph Company in San Francisco,
        California. Fairchild Company manufactured the radio
        direction finder. The radio direction finder became
        widely used in planes of the period and was referred
        to by pilots as the "Kruesi."

        Kruesi also worked for the Bendix Aviation Corporation
        in the early 1930s before joining the research team at
        Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio in 1933. While working
        at Wright Field, Kruesi began work on a radio compass
        and directional finder, pat. no. 2,393,643.

        In 1961, Kruesi invented an airplane instrument
        approach and landing system, pat. no. 3,007,162,
        while living in San Francisco."

In 1944, Helicopter Mercy Mission--Commander Frank A.
        Erickson, USCG, flying an HNS-1 helicopter, made an
        emergency delivery of 40 units of blood plasma from
        lower Manhattan Island to Sandy Hook where the
        plasma was administered to survivors of an explosion
        on the destroyer Turner (DD 648). In this, the
        first helicopter lifesaving operation, Commander
        Erickson took off from Floyd Bennett Field, flew to
        Battery Park on Manhattan Island to pick up the
        plasma and then to Sandy Hook. The flight was made
        through snow squalls and sleet which grounded all
        other types of aircraft.

In 1957, the last operational Catalina, a PBY-6A of NARTU
        Atlanta, was ordered retired from service.

In 1957, TWA becomes the first airline to offer passengers
        fresh brewed coffee in flight.

In 1966, the XB-70 flew for 3 minutes at 2,000 mph
        (Mach 3+).

In 1967, the first prodution workers arrive at Boeing's
        Everett plant to begin production of the 747.

In 1993, John B. Galipault, founder of The Aviation Safety Institute
        and Aviation Special Interest Group (AVSIG) forum on CompuServe
        dies at 62 after suffering a heart attack at his home in Worthington, Ohio.

                   January 4

Leroy Randle Grumman:  born January 4, 1895
        born in Huntington, New York; graduated from Cornell;
        at the start of WW-I he enlisted as a machinists mate
        in the US Navy Reserves; applied for aviation duty;
        trained and assigned as a flight instructor; moved
        up to project engineer and test pilot at the League
        Island Naval Yard near Philadelphia where he worked
        with Albert and Grover Loening; in 1920

        Resigned from the Navy to be a test pilot for the
        Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corp; unwilling
        to relocate from Long Island, he resigned in 1929
        and founded the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp.

        Grumman designs were used to supply US Forces
        with more than 30,000 aircraft in WW-II including
        the F-4F Wildcat; F-6F Hellcat and the TBF Avenger;
        he went on to produce the F-7F Tigercat, the F-8F
        Bearcat, the F-9F Panther, S2F Tracker, SA-16
        Albatross, G-1 (a turbo-prop utilizing the RR Dart
        engine), E2, C2 and F11F (first fighter designed
        by area rule) as well as the AgCat, the Lunar
        Excursion Module and the Gulfstream executive jet.

In 1931, William G. Swan stayed aloft for 30 minutes over
        Atlantic City, N.J., in a glider powered with 10
        small rockets.

In 1933, a new plan for postgraduate work was approved which
        combined the existing programs for specialists and
        for the General Line, and extended the aeronautical
        engineering program to three years.

In 1940, Project Baker was established in Patrol Wing 1 for
        the purpose of conducting experiments with blind
        landing equipment.

In 1948, University of California announced completion of
        pilot model for low-pressure supersonic wind tunnel,
        while NACA Ames Aeronautical Laboratory placed its
        low-density wind tunnel into operation about this

In 1958, SPUTNIK I reentered the atmosphere and

In 1973, the first flight of the LearJet Model 35.

In 1980, the first TA-7C Corsair II assigned to Pacific
        Missile Test Center, Point Mugu was test flown.

                   January 5

In 1923, cloud seeding over McCook Field, Dayton,
        accomplished by Prof. W. D. Bancroft of Cornell
        University, from Air Service aircraft.

In 1928, the first takeoff and landing on Lexington was made
        by Lieutenant A. M. Pride in a UO-1 as the ship
        moved from the Fore River Plant to the Boston Navy

In 1933, construction began on the Golden Gate Bridge; the
        bridge was completed and opened to pedestrian
        traffic on May 27, 1937; the following day it
        was opened to vehicular traffic.

In 1939, Amelia Earhart (and presumably Fred Noonan) were
       declared legally dead.

In 1943, Army Air Forces Major General Carl A. Spaatz is
        appointed Commander in Chief of the Allied Air
        Forces in North Africa.

In 1949, the X-1 #1 aircraft (serial #46-062) with Yeager as
        pilot achieved the only ground takeoff of the X-1
        program. He reached just over 23,000 feet before the
        limited propellant was exhausted.

        A little more info on this plane and the team:
        The Air Force Flight Test Division team from Wright
        Field included Major Roberto L. "Bob" Cardenas as
        project manager, Captain Jack L. Ridley as project
        engineer, Captain Charles E. "Chuck" Yeager as prime
        pilot and Lieutenant Robert A. Hoover as backup
        pilot. Richard Frost continued as civilian advisor
        for the program on loan from Bell Aircraft. This was
        the first time the Air Force had undertaken flight
        research (as opposed to development testing) since
        the 1920s.

        The X-1 #1 airplane flew for the last time on May
        12, 1950. During its career, it made eighty-three
        flights with ten different pilots. It was formally
        retired on August 26, 1950 and currently hangs in
        the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum in Washington

In 1959, the Fairey Rotodyne established the world
        rotorcraft speed record with an average ground speed
        of 191.2 mph over a 100 kilometer course. This
        record was set with the engines operating at normal
        cruise power and before aerodynamic improvements
        were applied to the aircraft. During practice runs,
        the Rotodyne achieved airspeeds of 160 mph in
        helicopter flight and over 200 mph in autogiro
        flight.  This is all the more amazing considering
        this aircraft was built to seat 65 passengers and
        fly at a gross weight of 65,000 lbs. The 1959 speed
        record set by the Fairey Rotodyne was first broken
        by the Russian Kamov KA-22 in 1961 with a speed of
        221 mph. 

In 1961, a turbofan-powered B-52H Boeing bomber, with two
        prototype Douglas Skybolt air-launched 1,000-mile-
        range ballistic missiles under each wing, was rolled
        out of the factory at Wichita, Kansas.

In 1987, Missouri U.S. Congressman Ike Skelton announced
        that Whiteman had been selected as the first home of
        the Air Force's newest bomber, the B-2 Stealth

                   January 6

Jakob Bernoulli:  born January 6, 1655
        Swiss mathematician; lived in Basel; his research
        advanced the study of Algebra; Calculus; Mechanics
        and Probability.

In 1913, the entire aviation element of the Navy arrived at
        Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and set up the Aviation Camp
        on Fisherman's Point for its first operations with
        the Fleet. The assignment, which included scouting
        missions and exercises in spotting mines and
        submerged submarines as part of the fleet maneuvers,
        served both to demonstrate operational capabilities
        of the aircraft and to stimulate interest in
        aviation among fleet personnel, more than a hundred
        of whom were taken up for flights during the 8-week
        stay.  This was the first known Navy use of aircraft
        for maneuvers.

In 1914, the Marine Corps element of the Aviation Camp at
        Annapolis, under Lieutenant B. L. Smith, USMC, and
        equipped with a flying boat, an amphibian, spare
        parts and hangar tents, was ordered to Culebra
        Island for exercises with the Advance Base Unit.

In 1916, instruction commenced for the first group of
        enlisted men to receive flight training at

In 1917, a board of Army and Navy officers recommended to
        the Secretaries of the War and Navy Departments that
        an airship of the Zeppelin type be designed and
        constructed under the direction of the Chief
        Constructor of the Navy.

Earl Eugene Scruggs:  born January 6, 1924
        born in Flint Hill, North Carolina; Banjo player,
        of Flatt and Scruggs

In 1928, Lieutenant C. F. Schilt, USMC, flying an O2U-1,
        made the first of 10 flights in which he landed in a
        street of the village of Quilahi, Nicaragua, and
        evacuated 18 wounded officers and men while under
        hostile fire. For this feat, which he accomplished
        in 3 successive days, Schilt was awarded the Medal
        of Honor.

In 1930, Guggenheim Safe Aircraft Competition prize was
        awarded to Curtiss Tanager, which featured practical
        wing flaps and leading-edge Handley-Page slots.

In 1942, the 80th Pursuit Squadron was born at Mitchell Field,
        New York to replace the 33rd Pursuit Squadron which
        had deployed to Iceland to protect the North Atlantic

In 1944, Major General James Doolittle assumed command of
        the 8th Air Force.

In 1955, Elvis performs his fourth concert of his first ever
        tour at Fair Park Auditorium in Lubbock, Texas. He
        began the tour on January 1 at Eagles Hall in
        Houston, Texas followed by Odessa High School,
        Odessa, Texas and City Auditorium in San Angelo,
        Texas.  Next stop on the tour - Midland High School.
        He would play Fair Park Auditorium 5 more times that
        year (13-Feb, 15-Feb, 30-May, 11 Oct and 15-Oct).
        He would also play 4 concerts at Keesler Air Force
        Base, Mississippi that year.

In 1971, the Marine Corps/Navy's first AV-8 Harrier was
        accepted by Major General Homer S. Hill, USMC, at
        Dunsfold, England. The Harrier was the first
        vertical take-off and landing (V/STOL) fixed-wing
        aircraft ever accepted for use as a combat
        aircraft by U.S. armed forces.

In 1977, the first F404 development engine was tested
        successfully at the General Electric plant in Lynn,
        Massachusetts approximately a month ahead of

In 1979, the 388th Tactical Fighter Wing at Hill AFB in Utah
        receives the first operational General Dynamics
        F-16A fighters.

In 1997, Boeing offers the 767-400ERX for sale to the
        world's airlines.

                   January 7

In 1785, the first aerial crossing of the English Channel
         by Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and American
         Dr. John Jeffries from Kent, England to France.
         It is rumored that they underestimated the rate
         at which their hot-air balloon would cool off;
         they had to throw everything available over the
         side, and ultimately made it to the French shore
         buck-ass nekkid.

Sir Sandford Fleming:  born January 7, 1827
        born in Kirkcaldy, Scotland; Civil engineer and
        scientist who surveyed much of the railroad system
        in Canada; became chief Engineer of the Canadian
        Pacific RR; in 1884, he devised a system of 24
        World Standard Time Zones (originally called the
        International Rail Zones) which is used today.

In 1914, the Office of Aeronautics, with Captain Mark L.
        Bristol in charge, was transferred from the Bureau
        of Navigation to the Division of Operations in the
        Office of the Secretary of the Navy.

In 1927, NAT awards Travel Air a contract for 7 Monoplanes

In 1929, the comic strip "Buck Rogers" debuted in papers in
        the US

In 1942, expansion of naval aviation to 27,500 useful planes
        was approved by the president.

In 1943, a change in the Navy pilot training program was
        implemented by the opening of Flight Preparatory
        Schools in 20 colleges and universities in all parts
        of the country.

In 1943, development of the first naval aircraft to be
        equipped with a turbojet engine was initiated with
        the issuance of a Letter of Intent to McDonnell
        Aircraft Corporation for engineering, development,
        and tooling for two VF airplanes. Two Westinghouse
        19-B turbojet engines were later specified and
        the aircraft was designated XFD-1. It became the
        prototype for the FH-1 Phantom jet fighter.

In 1949,  X-1, flown by Capt. Charles E. Yeager, climbed
        23,000 feet after launch at record rate of 13,000
        feet per minute, at Muroc.

In 1963, Learjet Corporation begins business in Wichita, Kansas

                   January 8

Sir Frank Dyson:  born January 8, 1868
        British astromoner; 9th Astronomer Royal in
        England from 1910 to 1933; in 1919, confirmed
        Einstein's predicted gravitational bending
        of light; not the same person as Freeman John
        Dyson (of Dyson Sphere fame).

William T. Piper:  born January 8, 1881
        Spanish American War veteran; Captain in the
        WW-I Corps of Engineers; joined the Taylor Aircraft
        Co in the early 1920's; in 1935, the original
        Cub was modified to become the J-3 Cub; in 1937,
        established the Piper Aircraft Corp in Lock
        Haven, PA; in Feb 1954, introduced the Apache, the
        first all metal and first twin engine for Piper;
        in addition, he introduced the PA-25 Pawnee,
        PA-28 Cherokee, Warrior, Archer, Dakota, Arrow,
        Seneca, Saratoga, Navajo, Chieftain, Mojave,
        Cheyene, Seminole and Malibu.

In 1917, a Benet-Mercie machine gun, installed in a flexible
        mount in the Burgess-Dunne AH-10, was fired at
        altitudes of 100 and 200 feet above Pensacola. Both
        the gun and the aircraft operated satisfactorily
        during the test.

In 1920, the policy of the Army and Navy relating to
        aircraft was published for the information and
        guidance of the services.
In 1931, further development of dive-bombing equipment and
        tactics was insured as tests completed at the Naval
        Proving Grounds, Dahlgren, showed that displacing
        gear eliminated the recently encountered danger of a
        bomb colliding with its releasing airplane.

Elvis Presley:  born January 8, 1935
        born in Tupelo, Mississippi; signed with Sun Records
        in 1954; had 149 songs appear on Billboards top 100
        list; 114 in the top 40; 40 in the top 10 and 14
        went to number 1; first appeared on Ed Sullivan
        show in 1956.

Stephen Hawking:  born January 8, 1942
        Physicist; born in Oxford, England; he believes that
        Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied that
        space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang
        and end in black holes.        

In 1943, the first aircraft takeoff in United States with
        permanently installed JATO rocket powerplant, an
        A-20A at Muroc Army Air Base, California.

In 1944, the first flight of Lockheed XP-80 at Muroc, which
        was powered by British Halford turbojet engine, the
        first U.S. airplane designed from the beginning for
        turbojet propulsion. Rushed through development in
        145 days by Lockheed's Clarence L. ("Kelly")
        Johnson, the P-80 was not distributed to tactical
        units until December 1945.  The pilot of "Lulu
        Belle" was Milo Burcham and the XP-80 was the first
        American fighter to exceed 500 mph in level flight.

In 1947, the first experimental operation of model slotted
        -throat wind tunnel. Langley Laboratory's Ray H.
        Wright, working theoretically, and Vernon G. Ward,
        working experimentally with a parasite tunnel
        attached to the Langley 16-foot high-speed tunnel,
        collaborated in an effort that resulted in
        establishment of transonic flow with the use of
        longitudinal slots in the walls of the throat of a
        conventional subsonic tunnel. Known as the slotted-
        throat technique, first major installation was made
        in the Langley 8-foot subsonic high-speed tunnel in
        December 1949, a breakthrough in wind tunnel

In 1951, first Boeing B-47B rolled out.

In 1956, U2-A #6680 was delivered.  This is the aircraft
        that is currently on display at the Smithsonian Air
        and Space Museum.

In 1982, the Airbus A300 becomes the first wide bodied
        airliner to be certified for operation by a flight
        crew of two.

                 January 9

Louise Hovick:  born January 9, 1914
        aka Gypsy Rose Lee, born in Seattle, Washington;
        "burlesque artist"

In 1923, Lt. Juan Gomez-Spencer flew Juan de la Cierva's C.4
        autogiro at Getafe Airdrome, near Madrid, marking
        the first controlled flight of an autogiro. The
        breakthrough over previous models was the
        incorporation of hinged rotors to prevent the
        asymmetric lift that had plagued previous
        attempts. For lateral control, ailerons were mounted
        on outriggers to the side of the aircraft. Yaw and
        pitch control still came from a rudder and

In 1931, an agreement was announced between the Chief of
        Naval Operations Admiral William V. Pratt and the
        Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur,
        governing the operations of their respective air
        forces, which climaxed a long standing interservice
        controversy over the division of responsibilities
        for coast defense.

In 1943, the Lockheed C-69 transport (military version of
        the Model 49 Constellation) makes its first flight
        at Burbank, California.

In 1962, the first flight of the DeHavilland DH121 Trident.

In 1984, Clara Peller spoke her famous line for the first
        time: "Where's the beef!"

In 1990, the 9th flight for Columbia is launched as STS-32.

                January 10

Ray Bolger:  born January 10, 1904
        Actor; played the Scarecrow in the Wizard of Oz;
        Movie Note: Jack Haley got the Tin Man Part after
        Buddy Ebsen had a bad reaction to test makeup for
        the role. Specifically, Ebsen's reaction was to the
        silver paint that they used on the Tin Man.  Ebsen
        says that MGM had already shot some scenes that he
        was in, and he thinks that some of them (long shots)
        made it into the movie.

In 1914, the Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels
        announced that "the science of aerial navigation has
        reached that point where aircraft must form a large
        part of our naval force for offensive and defensive

In 1917, the first production order for aerial photographic
        equipment was initiated when the Naval Observatory
        issued requisitions for 20 aero cameras and
        accessories to be manufactured by the Eastman Kodak

In 1921, a 700-hp aircraft engine having 18 cylinders
        arranged in three banks of six, was tested at
        Engineering Division, McCook Field. This was
        the "W" of the Dayton-Wright Engineering Divison.
        It was the first engine to be tested for higher
        performance derived from the Kettering Process
        for leaded fuels. This engine first flew in the
        Gallaudet DB-1.

In 1934, six Consolidated P2Y-l's of Patrol Squadron 10F,
        Lieutenant Commander K. McGinnis commanding, made a
        nonstop formation flight from San Francisco to Pearl
        Harbor in 24 hours 35 minutes, thereby bettering the
        best previous time for the crossing, exceeding the
        best distance of previous mass flights, and breaking
        a nine-day-old world record for distance in a
        straight line for Class C seaplanes with a new mark
        of 2,399 miles.

Robert Woodrow Wilson:  born January 10, 1936
        Radio astronomer; won Nobel Prize in 1978 for a
        discovery which supported the "Big Bang" thoery.

In 1946, an Army R-5, demonstrated by C. A. Moeller and D.
        D. Viner, set an unofficial world helicopter record
        by climbing to 21,000 feet at Stratford, Conn.

In 1962, a Boeing B-52H flew nonstop from Okinawa to Madrid
       breaking 11 world speed and distance records.

In 1990, the first flight of the McDonnell Douglas MD-11.

                  January 11

Laurens Hammond:  born January 11, 1895
        born in Chicago, IL; founder of Hammond Organ;
        electrical engineer with no musical background;
        held 110 elictrical and mechanical patents by
        the time he retired.

        In 1925, founded the Andrews Hammond Laboratory;
        worked on a battery eliminator for early radios;
        during WW-II, not only built organs for the
        military, he also developed aircraft control
        systems, a flight path simulator, an infrared light
        sensing device for bomb guidance and other
        equipment for the war effort.

William Stephenson:  born January 11, 1896
        born in Point Douglas, Winnipeg, Manitoba; gassed
        in the WW-I trenches, he learned to fly while
        recuperating; transferred to the Royal Flying Corps
        No 73 Squadron and rose to ace status; POW at
        Karlsruhe; rank 2nd LT; awarded Military Cross;
        after the war he invented the wire-photo
        Appointed by Winston Churchill to head the British
        Security Coordination in NY City; chronicled in "A Man
        Called Intrepid".

In 1916, the Naval Observatory forwarded two magnetic
        compasses to Pensacola for tests under all
        conditions. These compasses, modified from the
        British Creigh-Osborne design on the basis of
        recommendations by naval aviators, provided a model
        for the compasses widely used in naval aircraft
        during World War I.

In 1928, the first takeoff and landing on Saratoga was made
        by her Air Officer, Commander Marc A. Mitscher in a

In 1935, Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly solo
        between Hawaii and the United States. She leaves
        Wheeler Field, Oahu and arrives in Oakland CA after
        18 hours 15 minutes in a Lockheed Vega.

In 1941, Army Air Corps announced the control of robot
        planes, either by radio from the ground or from
        another plane, had been tested successfully.

In 1954, the US Air Force approves construction of 5 "Texas
        Towers" as part of the Air Defense System.

In 1958, James H. Doolittle, Chairman of the National
        Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, announced that a
        special committee on space technology was formed on
        November 21, 1957.

In 1996, the ninth operational B-2 Spirit bomber (90-0040)
        arrived at Whiteman.

In 1996, the 10th flight of Endeavour was launched as

                   January 12

In 1866, the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain is founded
        in London. It is now the Royal Aeronautical Society.

Jack London:  born January 12, 1876
        born in San Francisco; Author; "Call Of The Wild";
        in 1904, served as a war correspondent in Korea
        during the Russo - Japanese War; in 1914, served
        as a war correspondent in Mexico during the
        Villa-Carranza revolt; sailed for 27 months aboard
        the "Snark" around Australia and the South Pacific

Sergey Korolyov:  born January 12, 1907
        born in Zhitomir, Russia; missile and rocket designer;
        did not join the Communist Party until 1953; was under
        house arrest during WW-II; worked on improving the
        V-2 rocket; helped design the Russian ICBM; placed in
        charge of systems engineering for Soviet spacecraft

        He directed the design, construction, testing and
        launch of the Vostok, Voskhod and Soyez manned
        spacecraft.  Also oversaw the Cosmos, Molniya and
        Zond series unmanned craft.

In 1939, President Roosevelt asked Congress for a revision
        of the authorization for Army aircraft.

In 1943, the first flight of a Heinkel He280 equipped with
       4 Argus Ar014 rocket engines.  This was was a brief
       (desperate) trial "idea" that ended in destruction ...
       moments after an old standard He 280 airframe 
       multipowered "Argus-Schmidt As 14" rocket engined bird
       crashed just after take-off. 

       The "V1" never had engines and was towed by He 111s in
       aerodynamic testing in the late Winter of 1940 and early
       Spring of 1941.

       The "Heinkel 280"  is the worlds first turbojet powered
       fighter, flown for the first time on April 12, 1941.
       Development of this advanced fighter began in 1939, and
       a prototype was ready by Sept. 1940. It was first flown
       as a glider without its turbojets a month before its flight
       with the power plants installed. It was truly a very
       advanced aircraft with tricycle landing gear.

In 1948, Northrop Aircraft Co. announced that rocket
        -powered test vehicles at Muroc Air Base, Calif.,
        had attained a speed of 1,019 mph.

In 1953, in the initiation of test operations aboard the
        Navy's first angled deck carrier, Antietam, Captain
        S. G. Mitchell, the ship's Commanding Officer,
        landed aboard in an SNJ. During the next four days,
        six aircraft models made landings, touch-and-go
        landings, night landings, and takeoffs in winds
        of varying force and direction.

In 1959, NASA announced selection of McDonnell Aircraft
        Corp., as source for design, development, and
        construction of Mercury capsule.

In 1965, the Department of Defense announced that the
        Transit all-weather navigation satellite system had
        been in operational use since July 1964. This
        system, when completely developed, would consist of
        four satellites in polar orbit and would provide a
        ship at the equator with a navigational fix once an

In 1986, Columbia made its 7th flight when it was launched
        as 61-C.

In 1995, beginning at 1:37 p.m. local, the 509th launched
        three B-2s within 35 minutes of each other marking
        the first time that many B-2s were in the air at one
        time. The three aircraft completed air refueling,
        bombing, and transitioned for a record total of six
        B-2 sorties in one day.

In 1997, the 18th flight of Atlantis was launched as STS-81.

                   January 13

In 1913, Harry M. Jones inaugurates the United States first
        regular air cargo service, flying baked beans from
        Boston to New York in a Wright Model B.

In 1940, the first flight of the Yakolev YAK-1.

In 1942, a Sikorsky XR-4, single-rotary wing, two-man
        helicopter, made its first successful flight.

In 1961, Convair B-58 Hustler, jet bomber powered by four GE
        J-79 engines, broke six world speed records, Maj. Henry
        John Deutschendorf, U.S. Air Force, as pilot. On first
        closed-course run, the Hustler averaged 1,200.194
        miles per hour, and it averaged 1,061.808 miles per
        hour on both runs carrying a payload of 4,408 pounds
        and a crew of three.  Major Deutschendorf was John
        Denver's father.

In 1961, NASA announced that a Life Sciences Research
        Laboratory would  be established on February 1 at
        NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif.

In 1977,  NAS Jacksonville announced the two AV-8A Harrier
        aircraft had made a bow on approach and landing
        aboard Franklin D. Roosevelt. This may have been the
        first time in Naval aviation history that a fixed-
        wing aircraft made a bow on, downwind landing aboard
        a carrier at sea. This landing, with jets facing
        aft, demonstrated that V/STOL aircraft could be
        landed aboard a carrier without many of the
        conditions necessary for fixed-wing, non-V/STOL

In 1991, the first 727 built was retired from United Air
        Lines service and donated to Museum of Flight in

In 1993, the 3rd flight of Endeavour was launched as STS-54.

                   January 14

Albert Schweitzer:  born January 14, 1875
        born in Kaysersberg, Alsace (then Germany);
        studied medicine at the Univ of Strasbourg from
        1905 to 1913; in 1913, established a hospital
        in French Equatorial Africa; during WW-I, he was a
        POW in the Pyrenees and also in St Remy; also wrote
        theology, was an accomplished organist and was
        an authority on the life and works of Johann
        Sebastian Bach

In 1935, squadrons assigned to the Ranger made the first of
        a series of cross-country flights from Norfolk, Va.,
        to Hartford, Conn., and Buffalo, N.Y., to test the
        functioning of carrier aircraft, special equipment,
        and flight clothing under the exacting conditions to
        be encountered in cold weather. When the tests were
        completed on 2 February, the lessons learned were
        used in preparing for tests aboard the Ranger the
        next winter.

In 1935, United Airlines decides to equip its fleet with a
        de-icing system for airplane wings. The system was
        tested on a Boeing 247.

In 1953, USAF scientific advisory panel concluded that
        unidentified flying objects (UFO's): (1) held no
        direct physical threat; (2) were not foreign
        developments; (3) were not unknown phenomena
        requiring revision of current scientific concepts;
        and (4) a rash of sightings offered a threat from
        skillful hostile propagandists.

In 1957, (through 1/24) in an evaluation of their all
        -weather capability, ZPG airships of ZW-1, operating
        in relays from South Weymouth, maintained continuous
        radar patrol over the North Atlantic 200 miles off
        the New England coast through some of the worst
        storms experienced in the area in years.

In 1957, the USAF signed a $74 million contract for F-102A
        supersonic all weather fighters.

In 1960, the first flight of the Piper PA-28 Cherokee.

                  January 15

Edward Teller:  born January 15, 1908
        born in Budapest, Hungary; PhD in Physics from
        University of Leipzig; 1935 became a professor at
        George Washington University; joined the
        Manhattan project in 1942; worked on the first
        nuclear reactor, effects of a fission explosion
        and potential of a fusion reaction.

In 1915, new official American one-man duration record of
        8 hours 53 minutes set by Lt. B. Q. Jones in a
        Martin tractor biplane at San Diego, Calif.

In 1937, the first flight of the Beech Model 18-A (Twin
        Beech). The test pilot was J.N. Peyton.

In 1943, Captain H. S. "Seth" Warner, Head of the Flight
        Statistics Desk of the Bureau of Aeronautics,
        introduced Grampa Pettibone, in the BuAer News
        Letter. Pettibone, a cartoon character drawn by
        Lieutenant Robert Osborn, was produced as a safety
        feature in the hope of cutting down on pilot-error
        accidents. Gramps went on to become famous through
        the post-war decades as Osborn, after leaving the
        Navy, continued to contribute his character to Naval
        Aviation News magazine.

In 1950, General H.H. "Hap" Arnold died of a heart ailment.
        Hap Arnold was a 'General of the Army' (5-Star) and
        was (later and honorably) made a 'General of the Air

In 1959, first successful castings of molybdenum made at
        U.S. Bureau of Mines Laboratory at Albany, OR.

                   January 16

In 1911, the first photo reconnaissance flight was unable to
        locate troops from the air.

        Bureau of Aeronautics directed that army-type seat
        pack parachutes be shipped to Marine Corps aviation
        units at Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Guam and

In 1924, President Coolidge canceled all preparations for
        Navy Arctic expedition in which it was intended to
        use airplanes and the dirigible Shenandoah.

In 1926, Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of
        Aeronautics formally established.

In 1929, experience in night flying became a requirement for
        all heavier-than-air Naval Aviators and Naval
        Aviation Pilots of the Navy and Marine Corps. The
        Chief of Naval Operations ordered that prior to
        1 July 1930, each qualified aviator pilot an
        aircraft on 10 hours of night flying involving at
        least 20 landings, and that student aviators meet
        the same requirement during the first year of their
        first duty assignment.

In 1939, Maj. Gen. Frank M. Andrews, Chief of Army General
        Headquarters Air Force, in an address to the annual
        convention of the National Aeronautic Association at
        St. Louis, said that the United States was a fifth-
        or sixth-rate air power. In 1943, he was promoted
        to the rank of Lt General and took command of the
        European Theater of Operations for the Air Corps. 
        His B-24 crashed that year while attempting to land
        at the Royal Air Force Base at Kaldadarnes, Iceland.

In 1944, Lieutenant (jg) S. R. Graham, USCG, while en route
        from New York to Liverpool in the British freighter
        Daghestan made a 30 minute flight in an R-4B (HNS-1)
        from the ship's 60 by 80 foot flight deck. Weather
        during the mid-winter crossing of the North Atlantic
        permitted only two additional flights and, as a
        result, the sponsoring Combined Board for Evaluation
        of the Ship-based Helicopter in Anti-Submarine
        Warfare concluded that the helicopter's capability
        should be developed in coastal waters until models
        with improved performance became available.

In 1957, three of five B-52 jet bombers completed first
        nonstop jet flight around the world in 45 hours 20

In 1961, the final assembly of first Saturn flight vehicle
        (SA-1) was completed.

In 1971, KLM Airlines was the first to accept delivery of a
        Boeing 747-200B. This was three weeks after the FAA
        granted certification to the aircraft.

In 1979, the first F/A-18 Hornet arrived at NATC Patuxent
        River for evaluation trials. Testing during the year
        included refueling in- flight, land-based catapult
        launchings and arrested landings, speed tests and
        at-sea carrier takeoffs and traps aboard America.

In 1991, the first flight of the F-18 High Alpha Research
        Vehicle (HARV) with a thrust vectoring system
        installed on the engine exhaust nozzles to enhance
        control and maneuvering at high angles of attack.

                   January 17

Benjamin Franklin: born January 17, 1706
        born in Boston

Michael Sinnott:  born January 17, 1880
        aka Mack Sennett; born in Danville, Quebec, Canada;
        Movie producer and director; created the Keystone
        Kops; credited with discovering Charlie Chaplin,
        Buster Keaton and Fatty Arbuckle

Glenn Luther Martin:  born January 17, 1886
        was a car dealer in Santa Ana, California in 1909
        when he learned to fly; built his first planes
        with help from his auto mechanics; incorporated
        the Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Company in 1912;
        past employees of Martin: William Boeing, Donald
        Douglas, Lawrence Bell, James S. McDonnell, Charles
        Day (Standard Aircraft), Charles Willard (L.W.F.
        Engineering), J.H. Kindleberger (North American)
        and C.A. VanDusen (Brewster); company was responsible
        for many planes including the China Clippers.
In 1906, the second zeppelin (LZ-2) makes its first successful
        flight over Lake Constance achieving a speed of 25 mph.

In 1936, the Army ordered 13 YB-17's despite the crash of
        the prototype, Boeing Model 299.

In 1943, following tests conducted at NAS San Diego by six
        experienced pilots flying F4U-1s, the Commanding
        Officer of VF-12, Commander J. C. Clifton, reported
        that anti-blackout suits raised their tolerance to
        accelerations encountered in gunnery run and other
        maneuvers by three to four Gs.

In 1961, the first invention award under the authority of
        the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 given
        to Dr. Frank T. McClure of the Applied Physics
        Laboratory of Johns Hopkins for his satellite
        Doppler navigation system, the $3,000 award
        being presented by NASA Administrator Glennan at
        NASA headquarters.

In 1962, first air operations were conducted by Enterprise
        as Commander George Talley made an arrested landing
        and catapult launch in an F8U Crusader. Although
        three TF Traders of VR-40 had taken off from her
        deck on 30 October 1961 to transport VlP's to the
        mainland after observing sea trials, Commander
        Talley's flights marked the start of Enterprise
        fleet operations.

In 1975, the first production model of Lockheed's updated
        P-3C Orion was delivered to VX-1, the Navy's
        antisubmarine warfare evaluation squadron at NAS
        Patuxent River. New avionics and software included a
        versatile computer language, the Omega worldwide
        navigation system, increased sound-processing
        sensitivity, a tactical display scope, improved
        magnetic tape transport, and a seven-fold increase
        in computer memory capacity from 65,000 to 458,000

                  January 18

Sir Thomas Octave Murdoch Sopwith:  born January 18, 1888
        born in London, England; famous designer of Sopwith
        aircraft; models included the Camel, the Hurricane
        and the Hawker Harrier

Archibald Alec Leach: born January 18, 1904
        aka Cary Grant; born in Horfield, Bristol, England;

In 1905, the Wright Brothers open negotiations with the
        Government for procurement of one airplane.

In 1911, at 11:01 a.m., Eugene Ely, flying the same Curtiss
        pusher used to take off from Birmingham (CL 2),
        landed on a specially built platform aboard the
        armored cruiser Pennsylvania (Armored cruiser No. 4)
        at anchor in San Francisco Bay. At 11:58 he took off
        and returned to Selfridge Field, San Francisco,
        completing the earliest demonstration of the
        adaptability of aircraft to shipboard operations.

In 1927,  Lieutenant Commander J. R. Poppen, MC, reported
        for duty in charge of the Aviation Section of the
        Naval Medical School, Washington, D.C., marking the
        beginning of a 3-month period during which the
        entire resources of the school were devoted to
        intensive instruction in aviation medicine. The
        institution of this program also marked the
        beginning of Flight Surgeon training in the Navy.

In 1957, TF-1Qs, first naval aircraft equipped for
        electronics jamming, were first received by All-
        Weather Attack Squadron 35 at San Diego.

In 1972, the first flight of Beech E90 King Air, test
        pilot E. R. Griffin.

                   January 19

Edgar Allan Poe:  born January 19, 1809
        Born in Boston, Mass; enlisted in the United States
        Army as a private using the name Edgar A. Perry.
        Served two years of service, during which he was
        promoted to the rank of Sergeant-major; attended the
        US Military Academy at West Point

General Robert Edmund Lee: born January 19, 1807
        Born in Stratford, Virginia; rose to
        "Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the
        Confederate States of America."

In 1910, 3 two pound sandbags are dropped in the first
        simulated bomb drop experiment.  The pilot was Louis
        Farman flying a Farman biplane and the passenger was
        Lt. Paul Beck. The sandbags were dropped in an
        attempt to hit a target at the Los Angeles Flying

In 1915, the first German aerial bombing of Britain, by two
        Zeppelins, thereby opening up a new era in the
        exploitation of aeronautics. During World War I, a
        total of 56 tons of aerial bombs were dropped on
        London and 214 tons on the rest of Britain. One
        airship, the L.6 had to turn back but the L3 and the
        L4 continued on to drop their bombs on Great
        Yarmouth and King's Lynn.

In 1918, the U.S. School of Aviation Medicine began
        operations under Maj. Williams H. Wilmer, Signal
        Corps, Hazelhurst Field, Mineola, N.Y. A
        low-pressure tank was constructed to simulate
        altitudes up to 30,000 feet, and some studies were
        conducted at Pikes Peak.

In 1920, the Commandant NAS Pensacola reported that in the
        future no student would be designated a Naval
        Aviator or given a certificate of qualification as a
        Navy Air Pilot unless he could send and receive 20
        words a minute on radio telegraph.

In 1940, Maj. James H. Doolittle elected president of the

In 1946, the first glide flight of AAF-NACA XS-1 rocket
        research airplane (No.1 of the original three X-1's
        built, serial # 46-062), by Jack Woolams, Bell
        Aircraft test pilot, at Pinecastle Army Air Base,

In 1961, NASA selected Hughes Aircraft Co. for placing of a
        major subcontract by Jet Propulsion Laboratory to
        build seven Surveyor spacecraft designed for soft
        landings on the Moon.

In 1961, the Federal Communications Commission allocated a
        radio frequency to the American Telephone &
        Telegraph Co. to establish the first space satellite
        communications link between Europe and the United
        States on an experimental basis, a program calling
        for NASA launching of a series of experimental
        communication satellites capable of relaying
        telephone calls, television programs, and other
        messages across the Atlantic.

                  January 20

Harold L. Gray:  born January 20, 1894
        born in Kankakee, Illinois; Comic strip cartoonist;
        created "Little Orphan Annie"; had a degree in
        engineering from Purdue; started as a cub reporter
        with the Chicago Tribune but left to join the Army;
        was a bayonette instructor

In 1914, the aviation unit from Annapolis, consisting of 9
        officers, 23 men, 7 aircraft, portable hangars, and
        other gear, under Lieutenant J. H. Towers as officer
        in charge, arrived at Pensacola, Fla., on board
        Mississippi (BB 23) and Orion (AC 11) to set up a
        flying school. Lieutenant Commander Henry C. Mustin,
        in command of the station ship Mississippi, was
        also in command of the aeronautic station.

In 1918, the Air Service's 1 Army Corps Headquarters is
        organized at Neufchateau, France.

In 1920, the development and purchase of 200 hp. radial
        air-cooled engines from the Lawrance Aero Engine
        Corporation was initiated with an allocation of
        $100,000 to the Bureau of Steam Engineering for this

In 1921, the Secretary of the Navy approved a recommendation
        that development of radio-controlled aircraft be
        undertaken by the Bureau of Ordnance and the Bureau
        of Engineering.

In 1921, a Naval Aircraft Factory design of a turntable
        catapult, powered by compressed air, was approved by
        the Bureau of Construction and Repair for
        fabrication at the Philadelphia Navy Yard.

Edwin Eugene "Buzz" Aldrin Jr.:  born January 20, 1930
        Astronaut; second man to walk on the moon;
        born in Montclair, NJ.

In 1936, the Bureau of Engineering, acting in response to a
        request from the Bureau of Aeronautics, initiated
        naval support to the Bureau of Standards for the
        development of radio meteorographs. These
        instruments, later renamed radiosondes, were to be
        attached to small free balloons and sent aloft to
        measure pressure, temperature and humidity of the
        upper atmosphere, and to transmit this information
        to ground stations for use in weather forecasting
        and flight planning.

In 1945, Robert T. Jones, NACA Langley aeronautical
        scientist, formulated sweptback-wing concept to
        overcome shockwave effects at critical Mach numbers,
        and verified it in wind-tunnel experiments in March
        1945 prior to learning of parallel German work. It
        was subsequently checked by the wing-flow technique
        before the first NACA report was issued in June.

In 1945, Army Air Forces Major General Curtis E. LeMay
        succeeds Brig. General Haywood "Possum" Hansell as
        commander of XXI Bomber Command in the Mariana

In 1961, headline news in Moscow was detailed Tass
        announcement that Strelka, one of two female dogs
        recovered from orbiting Spacecraft II in August
        1960, had given birth to six puppies in good health.

In 1964, the first flight of the Beech Model 90 King Air,
        test pilot J. D. Webber.

In 1974, the General Dynamics YF-16 flew for the first time.

In 1988, the 100th and final B-1B bomber rolls off the line
        at Rockwell's plant in Palmdale, California.

                 January 21

Umberto Nobile:  born January 21, 1885
        born in Lauro, Italy; aeronautical engineer;
        pioneer in Arctic aviation; in 1926, he flew
        over the North Pole in the dirigible Norge;
        flight was from Spitsbergen, Norway to Alaska
        with Roald Amundsen and Lincoln Ellsworth.
In 1911, the Army made the first radio-telephonic
        transmission from an aircraft.

In 1916, in a step that led to the establishment of an
        aviation radio laboratory at Pensacola, the Officer
        in Charge of Naval Aeronautics requested the
        Superintendent, Radio Service, to authorize the
        radio operators at the Pensacola Radio Station to
        experiment with aircraft radio. Simultaneously, four
        sets of radio apparatus for aeroplanes were received
        at Pensacola.

In 1919, the second Army transcontinental flight by Maj. T.
        C. Macauley in DH-4 Liberty, Fort Worth-San Diego-
        Miami-Fort Worth, which he repeated in April.

In 1929, the Naval Proving Ground recommended that three
        prototypes of the production version of the Mark XI
        Norden bombsight be accepted and reported that on
        the first trial two of the three sights had placed a
        bomb within 25 feet of the target.

In 1933, Institute of Aeronautical Sciences (IAS) held its
        Founders Meeting at Columbia University under Jerome
        C. Hunsaker, president, and Lester D. Gardner.

In 1939, Dr. George W. Lewis, NACA Director of Aeronautical
        Research, elected president of the IAS.

In 1952, the first flight of the Saab 210 in Sweden.

In 1954, the first atomic-power submarine, U.S.S. Nautilus,
        launched at Groton, Conn.

In 1955, the Flying Platform, a one-man helicopter of
        radical design, made its first flight at the Hiller
        plant in Palo Alto, Calif. Although the flight
        occurred during ground tests and was therefore
        accidental, it was successful in all respects.

In 1970, Pan Am began the first commercial 747 service on
        the New York to London route.

In 1972, the S-3A Viking, the Navy's newest ASW aircraft,
        conducted its maiden test flight from Lockheed's
        Palmdale, California facility. The S-3A Viking met
        the Navy's requirements for a 400 knot plus aircraft
        and a 2,000 mile range subhunter to replace the
        aging S-2 Tracker. The S-3A, while about the same
        size as the S-2, had twice the speed and range of
        the Tracker.

               January 22

Marcel Dassault:  born January 22, 1892
        born Marcel Bloch in Paris, France; graduated as
        one of France's first aeronautical engineers in
        1914; his first project was the propeller for the
        SPAD; after WW-I, he produced a successful line
        of Bloch transports, bombers and fighters; member
        of the French resistance in WW-II; he was arrested
        in 1944 and sent to Buchenwald; after the war he
        changed his name to Dassault, his resistance code
        name; after the war his company developed the
        Ouragen, the Mystere and the Mirage.

In 1917, Royal Flying Corps (R.F.C.) headquarters was
        established in Toronto, and recruiting officers were
        dispatched to large cities throughout Canada, and
        several major points in the United States. McCurdy
        will also run a Curtiss Flying School in Montreal.
        McCurdy would prove invaluable to allied efforts
        promoting aviation.

        The first Canadian subject to obtain a pilot's
        license was J.A.D. McCurdy from the Aero Club of
        America.  It was No. 18.  McCurdy was also a
        member of the Aerial Experiment Association which
        was formed at Halifax, N.S.  The officers included:
        Alexander Graham Bell, John A.D. McCurdy, Frederick
        Walter (Casey) Baldwin, Glenn H. Curtiss, and
        Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge.

In 1924, the E. M. Laird Co. of Wichita, Kansas files formal
       change of name to Swallow Airplane Manufacturing Company.

In 1925, VF Squadron 2, the first trained to operate as a
        squadron from a carrier, began landing practice on
        Langley off San Diego.

In 1931, the Navy ordered its first rotary winged aircraft,
        the XOP-1 autogiro, from Pitcairn Aircraft,

In 1935, the Federal Aviation Commission, appointed by the
        President as provided in the Air Mail Act of 12 June
        1934, submitted its report which in essence set
        forth a broad policy covering all phases of aviation
        and the relation of the government thereto. A major
        share of its recommendations referred to commercial
        and civil aviation and in general stressed the
        needs for a strong air transport, for expanding
        airport facilities, for improving provisions for
        aviation in government organization, and for
        supporting the welfare of the aviation industry,
        particularly through the establishment of more
        realistic procurement practices and policy.
        For military aviation, the Commission recommended:
        continued study of air organization toward more
        effective employment of aviation and closer
        interservice relationships, expansion of
        experimental and development work and its close
        coordination through the NACA, expansion of the
        Reserve organizations and larger appropriations to
        support them, and a modification of personnel
        policies to permit assignment of officers with
        special engineering ability and industrial
        experience to continuous duty related to their

In 1936, Ranger, with 23 aircraft on board, arrived in Cook
        Inlet, Alaska, and began three weeks of operational
        tests to study the effects of cold weather on
        operating efficiency and to determine material and
        other improvements necessary for increasing carrier
        capabilities under extreme weather conditions.

In 1938, the first flight of the Heinkel He 100V-1
        prototype, a low wing all-metal aircraft with a
        wing-surface engine cooling system.

In 1953, the first flight test of a complete airplane model
        designed by "area rule" concepts propelled to
        supersonic speeds by rocket boosters, at Langley
        Wallops Island, Va.

In 1971, the Navy's most advanced antisubmarine warfare
        aircraft, the land-based P-3C Orion, established a
        world record in the heavyweight turboprop class for
        long distance flight. The production model aircraft,
        piloted by Commander Donald H. Lilienthal with a
        crew of eight, set the record with a flight of 6,857
        statute miles over the official great circle route
        from NAS Atsugi, Japan to NAS Patuxent River,
        Maryland. The flight, which topped the Soviet
        Union's IL-18 turboprop record of 4,761 miles set in
        1967, lasted 15 hours, 21 minutes. In order to avoid
        Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, the Lilienthal flight
        actually covered 7,010 miles.

In 1971, an experimental Cessna XMC (Experimental Magic Carpet)
       two-place pusher first flown, test pilot Bruce Barrett. 
       The airplane proved to not significantly out perform the
       model 150 and had a center of gravity shift that was
       unacceptable for students when the instructor got out, so
       it was used as a test bed for a number of applied research
       projects before being scrapped in the late '70s. 

                  January 23

In 1909, the first flight of the Bleriot XI.

In 1918, the first American military balloon ascension in
        the AEF took place at Cuperly, Marne, France.

In 1919, Ensign F. W. Dalrymple and Chief Machinist's Mate
        F. H. Harris took off at NAS Miami in a single-
        engine pusher flying boat, HS-2L, and with benefit
        of special gas tanks remained airborne for 9 hours
        21 minutes.

In 1949, the escort carrier Palau completed a 12-day test
        period off the New England coast developing the
        capability of carriers to conduct air operations
        under cold and severe weather conditions. This
        marked the Navy's continued interest in cold
        weather tests, first demonstrated on the Langley in
        the same area 18 years before.

In 1950, the USAF established the Air Research and
        Development Command (ARDC).  In 1961 it was
        redesignated the Air Force Systems Command.

In 1951, XF4D-1 (BuNo 124586) took off on its maiden flight,
        test pilot Robert Rahn at the controls. The airframe
        had been completed in 1950, but the 7000 lb.s.t.
        Westinghouse XJ40-WE-6 engine that was intended for
        the XF4D-1 had experienced serious development
        delays and was not yet ready for flight. Rather than
        wait until the J40 was completed, Douglas decided to
        install a 5000 lb.s.t. Allison J35-A-17 turbojet in
        the two XF4D-1 airframes for the initial testing.

        This first prototype had a clamshell-type canopy,
        whereas the second had a rearward-sliding canopy.
        The clamshell canopy was adopted for the production
        version. The Navy ordered an initial production
        batch of 12 F4D-1s in February of 1951.

In 1962, the last of 18 F8U-2N Crusaders of Marine
        All-Weather Fighter Squadron, VMF(AW)-451, arrived
        at Atsugi, Japan, from MCAS El Toro, completing the
        first trans-Pacific flight by a Marine Corps jet
        fighter squadron. Stops were made at Kaneohe, Wake,
        and Guam and air refueling was provided by GV-1
        tankers. The flight was led by Lieutenant Colonel
        Charles E. Crew, commanding officer of the squadron.

               January 24

Ernst Heinrich Heinkel:  born January 24, 1888
        born in Grunbach, Germany; worked for the Albatros
        Aviation Company and designed the Albatros B-II;
        left Albatros and designed several seaplanes for
        Hansa-Brandenberg; founded his own aircraft
        company in 1922;

In 1913, Swiss pilot Oscar Bider flies across the Pyrenees
        from Pau in southern France and lands at Madrid's
        Cuatro Vientos airfield, having reached 11,483 in
        his Bleriot monoplane.

Colonel Clay Tice:  born January 24, 1919
        (edited from his Avsig TopGun bio)
        born in Phoenix, Arizona; first ride in a airplane
        was in a Monoprep (which was the under-powered
        version of a Monocoupe); flew around the field three
        or four times for $2.00; '40-'41, trained in
        Porterfield CP-50s at a little grass strip on
        Rosecrans Blvd just south-east of LAX today; built
        time in Luscombe Silvaire 65's, Piper Cubs and a
        Taylorcraft with a Lycoming 40.

        Enlisted as an Army Flying Cadet in November 1940;
        went through primary at Ryan School of Aeronautics
        at Hemet, California; first flight in a Stearman
        PT-13; transferred to Randolph Field, San Antone,
        Texas, to fly North American BT-14s; then to Brooks
        Field for Advanced in BC-1s and AT-6s; assigned to
        the 23rd Pursuit Sqdn flying P-36s, P-40s and P-39s.

        Volunteered for an active COMBAT theater;
        transferred to Darwin, N.T., Australia, in the 9th
        Purusit Sqdn., 49th Pursuit Gp. flying P-40Es; first
        victory over a Zero on 30 July '42; flew 3 missions
        over the beach in support of D-Day.

        Clay was CO of the 42nd Fighter Sqdn at Bartow AAB;
        CO of the 42nd Fighter Sqdn at Hillsborough AAB,
        Florida; CO of the 507th Fighter Sqdn Myrtle Beach
        AAB; CO of the 49th Fighter Group at Lingayen Strip,
        Luzon; Deputy Commander of the first jet fighter
        crossing of the Atlantic in July '48; CO of the 81
        Group at Larson AFB; Director of Combat Operations
        Hqs, Central Air Defense Force, Kansas City, Kansas;
        CO of the 3595th Training Group at Nellis AFB, Las
        Vegas; Deputy Chief of Staff for Programming, Air
        Defense Command at Ent AFB, Colorado Springs; CO of
        the 65th Air Division (Def), SAC, at Torrejon AB;
        Director of Flight Test and later Deputy Commander
        for Test & Operations at Edwards AFB; Vice
        President of Northrop International, Europe;
        Hughes Aircraft's Flight Test Division

        Commendations included the Silver Star, two DFCs,
        somewhere around 30 Air Medals, umpteen battle stars
        for the various theaters, several Presidential Unit
        Citations, Spanish Air Force wings and the highest
        Spanish decoration available to foreigners.

In 1919, Army Air Service pilot 1st Lt. Temple M. Joyce
        makes 300 consecutive loops in a Morane fighter at
        Issoudun, France.

Robert Hoover: born January 24, 1922
        Born in Nashville, TN. Took flying lessons when he
        was 15.

        As part of the 20th Fighter Group, he was soon on
        his way to the European theater, with assignments in
        England, Africa, Morocco, Algiers and Italy. After
        Hoover had flown 58 successful missions, on Feb. 9, 1944,
        a German Focke-Wulf 190 shot down the 22-year-old flight
        leader in his Spitfire Mark V, off the southern coast of
        France. He was captured and held for 16 months in Stalag
        Luft 1, a German prison camp. He escaped in April 1945,
        stole a Focke-Wulf 190 from an abandoned Luftwaffe base
        and flew it to Holland.

        When WWII ended, he was assigned to Wright Field's Flight
        Test Division where, on October 14, 1947, he flew as
        backup pilot to Captain Chuck Yeager in the Bell X-1,
        the first aircraft credited with exceeding Mach 1. Hoover
        flew a Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star when Yeager broke the
        sound barrier and flew chase in 1997 for the 50th
        anniversary of the feat in an F-16.

        In 1951, he began a 36-year career with North American
        Aviation, testing airplanes including the T-28 Trojan,
        FJ-2 Fury, AJ-1 Savage, F-86 Sabre and F-100 Super Sabre.

        At the first Reno Air Races held in 1964, Hoover was the
        official starter in his famous P-51 Mustang; he continued
        the tradition for over three decades. In 1973, he began
        flying aerobatic demonstrations in a Shrike Commander 500S.
        Although he had many spectacular maneuvers, his signature
        was his "Dead Engine Energy Management Maneuver."

        He served two terms as president of the Society of
        Experimental Test Pilots. Over the years, he has been
        honored by many organizations, including the International
        Council of Air Shows, which, at their 1995 convention
        inducted him as the first member of their Hall of Fame.
        In 1986, he received the Lindbergh Medal for lifetime
        achievement, and in 1988, he was enshrined in the National
        Aviation Hall of Fame. In 2000, Hoover donated his famous
        Shrike to the Smithsonian.

In 1925, twenty-five aircraft carried scientists and other
        observers  above clouds in Connecticut to view total
        eclipse of the sun, while airship Los Angeles
        carried Naval Observatory scientists over Block
        Island, R.I.

In 1935, the Krueger Brewing Company offered the first
        canned beer for sale in Richmond, Virginia.

In 1945, Germany successfully launched A-9, a winged
        prototype of the first ICBM (the A-10) designed to
        reach North America. A-9 reached a peak altitude of
        nearly 50 miles and a maximum speed of 2,700 mph.

In 1946, General Carl Spaatz is named the first Chief of the
        Staff of the Army Air Forces.

In 1959, Major J. P. Flynn and Captain C. D. Warfield, of
        the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing, made a nonstop,
        nonrefueling flight in A4D Skyhawks from El Toro,
        Calif., to Cherry Point, N.C., covering 2,082 miles
        in 4 hours 25 minutes.

In 1962, two Navy F4H Phantom II fighters, designated F-110A
        by the Air Force, arrived at Langley AFB for use in
        orientation courses preliminary to the assignment of
        Phantom's to units of the Air Force Tactical Air

In 1979, Vice President Walter P. Mondale presented
        Lieutenant Colonel Herbert Fix with the Harmon
        International Aviation Trophy. Colonel Fix received
        the award for his role as Commanding Officer of USMC
        Helicopter Squadron HMH-463 during the evacuations
        of Phnom Penh and Saigon in 1975.

                  January 25

In 1886, the first Winter Carnival was held in St. Paul,
        Minnesota.  This was a celebration that was held
        because a New York reporter wrote that St Paul was
        "another Siberia, unfit for human habitation" in
        winter. Offended by the attack, the Chamber of Commerce
        decided to have the first winter carnival.  
        Crowned during the first carnival were William
        Hamm Sr as King Borealis Rex, Mrs. Albert Sheffer as
        Queen of the Snows and Colonel Delos A. Monfort as
        Fire King Coal.

In 1915, the inauguration of transcontinental phone service
         in the US.  Alexander Graham Bell at the AT&T
         headquarters in NY City spoke to Thomas Watson at
         the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco.
         He repeated the same words he used the first time
         on the telephone "Mr. Watson, Come here I want you".

In 1918, the Supervisor, Naval Reserve Flying Corps
        requested that Dr. Alexander McAdie, Director of
        Blue Hill Observatory, Harvard University, be
        enrolled as a Lieutenant Commander in the Naval
        Reserve and be assigned to the Aviation Office in
        CNO to organize a Naval Aerological Organization.

In 1921, the Committee on Law of Aviation, American Bar
        Association, filed initial report on the necessity
        of aerial law. On August 25, the ABA recommended
        Federal aerial legislation.

In 1945, X-1 #1 aircraft made its first ten flights at
        Pinecastle Army Air Field ending March 6, 1945. The
        Bell team included Stan Smith as project engineer
        and P.V. "Jack" Woolams as test pilot and test site
        manager. The NACA team, led by Walter C. Williams as
        project manager and Joel R. Baker as NACA pilot
        observer, collected and analyzed the flight data.

        The purpose of the ten glide flights by Woolams was
        to check out the aircraft's airworthiness and
        handling characteristics in the absence of the
        rocket engine.
In 1949, the USAF adopted a slate-blue uniform.

In 1959, the X-1B airplane was formally retired and is now
        on display at the Air Force Museum at Wright-
        Patterson AFB, Ohio. It flew for the last time on
        January 23, 1958 making twenty-seven flights with
        ten different pilots.

In 1961, NASA awarded contract to Lockheed for a spaceship
        refueling study.

In 1961, NASA revealed it had selected 12 women airplane
        pilots to undergo tests to determine space flight
        research capability.

In 1979, the Navy's YAV-8B, the Harrier prototype built by
        McDonnell Douglas, arrived at the Naval Air Test
        Center to test its aerodynamic improvements not
        found in the AV-8A.

In 1983, the first flight of the Saab-Fairchild 340 transport.

In 1990, the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird is retired from
        Strategic Air Command Service in ceremonies at Beale
        AFB in Calif.

In 1991, X-29 no. 2 sets a new one day record with five
        missions flown.

                   January 26


General Douglas MacArthur:  born January 26, 1880
        graduated West Point in 1903; assigned to  the
        Philippines; Colonel in WW-I; organized the
        Rainbow Division; at age 38 made Brigadier
        General; at age 50 was Chief of Staff; served
        in the Philippines in WW-II; made 5 star General;
Elizabeth "Bessie" Coleman:  born January 26, 1893
        born in Atanta, Texas; mother was African
        American and father was a Native American of the
        Cherokee tribe; learned to fly in Paris and earned
        her license on June 15, 1921 from the Federation
        Aeronautique Internationale; gained fame as a
        barnstormer in a war surplus Jenny Trainer.

In 1911, the first successful hydroaeroplane flight was made
        by Glenn Curtiss at North Island, San Diego. This
        important step in adapting aircraft to naval needs
        was witnessed by Lieutenant T. G. Ellyson, who
        assisted in preparing for the test.

In 1921, Post Office Department operated regular daily
        airmail routes over a distance of 3,460 miles.

In 1942, the 80th Pursuit Squadron (as part of the 8th
        Pursuit Group) left Mitchell Field, NY, bound for
        Fort Mason, San Francisco, CA.

In 1946, a new cross country record of 4 hours, 13 minutes
        and 23 seconds is set by Col. W. Council flying a

In 1951, the first flight of the Douglas Skyrocket D-588-2.
        It was launched from underneath a B-29.

In 1960, the first of two giant unmanned balloons was
        launched from Valley Forge, at sea south of the
        Virgin Islands. Almost as high as a 50-story
        building and with a cubic capacity greater
        than that of the rigid airship Akron, the balloons
        carried a weight of 2,500 pounds including 800
        pounds of emulsion sheets to record cosmic-ray
        activity.  The first balloon achieved an altitude of
        116,000 feet and remained aloft 8 hours but the
        second reached 113,000 feet and made a flight
        of 26 1/2 hours. The balloons were tracked by early
        warning aircraft from the carrier and shore base and
        the instruments were recovered by a destroyer. The
        project was under the joint sponsorship of the
        National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval

Wayne Gretzky:  born January 26, 1961
        National Hockey League hall of famer

In 1971, the AV-8A, Harrier, arrived at the Naval Air Test
        Center for commencement of Board of Inspection and
        Survey trials.

In 1988, Boeing rolled out the first 747-400 and on the same
        day, rolled out the first 737-400.

                  January 27

In 1888, the National Geographic Society was founded in
        Washington, D.C.

Admiral Hyman Rickover:  born January 27, 1900
        US Navy officer; was assigned to submarine duty in the
        1930's; assistant director of operations at the
        Atomic Energy Commissions Manhattan Project; headed
        planning and construction of the Nautilus, the
        first nuclear submarine.

In 1928, Los Angeles (ZR-3) made a successful landing on
        Saratoga at sea off Newport, R.I., and remained on
        board long enough to transfer passengers and take on
        fuel, water and supplies.

In 1939, the Lockheed XP-38 Lightning makes its first

In 1949, the Chief of Naval Operations authorized conversion
        of all new-construction cruisers to accommodate

In 1955, a North American FJ-3 Fury, piloted by Lieutenant
        Commander W. J. Manby of VF-33, set a new unofficial
        climb mark by reaching 10,000 feet from a standing
        start 73.2 seconds at NAS Oceana.

In 1957, the last operational P-51 fighter is retired to the
        Air Force Museum.

In 1958, after logging 783 flying hours, the YB-52 was
        donated to the USAF Museum at Wright-Patterson AFB
        in Ohio. Unfortunately, this aircraft was scrapped
        in the mid-1960s. It was a victim of Lady Bird
        Johnson's national beautification program, which
        sought to remove eyesores such as surplus military
        hardware from the landscape.

        Specification of Boeing YB-52 Stratofortress:
        Powerplant: Eight Pratt & Whitney YJ57-P-3
        turbojets, each rated at 8700 lb.s.t.

        Performance: Maximum speed 611 mph at 20,000 feet,
        594 mph at 35,000 feet. Cruising speed 519 mph.
        Stall speed 146 mph. Initial climb rate 4550 feet
        per minute. Combat radius 3545 miles with
        10,000 pound bombload. Ferry range 7015 miles.

In 1959, the first flight of the Convair 880.

In 1967, what was scheduled as the first Apollo mission
        ended with the loss of Virgil "Gus" Grissom,
        Edward White and Roger Chaffee.

In 1971, a P-3C at the Naval Air Test Center with Commander
        D.H. Lilienthal as Plane Commander established a
        world speed record for its class of 501.44 mph over
        the 15 to 25 km course.

In 1971, the Naval Air Systems Command expedited procurement
        of the TCW-33P VWS (Ventilated Wet Suit) to permit
        its issuance to VS and VP Squadrons during the
        winter of 1971-1972.

In 1982, the 1,000th Cessna Citation was delivered to Indium

                  January 28

Sir Henry Morton Stanley:  born January 28, 1841
        Led search party for David Livingston

Alan Alda:  born January 28, 1936
        Actor; MASH's Hawkeye Pierce

In 1942, the Eighth Air Force was formally activated in
        Savannah, Georgia.

In 1943, Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, Chief of the Mechanics and
        Sound Division of the National Bureau of Standards,
        elected president of the IAS.

In 1944, an Australian Sunderland Flying Boat of RAAF Squadron
        461 sank the German Submarine U-571. The U-571 was
        caught on the surface by a Sunderland III of 19 Group,
        Coastal Command, west of the mouth of the Shannon River
        (Ireland) at 1300-hrs this date and exploded after being
        strafed and depth charged.

In 1959, one hundred ten candidates were selected by NASA in
        the first screening for Project Mercury astronauts
        from Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps test-pilot

In 1976, the Navy awarded a contract for an initial funding
        of $16 million to the McDonnell Douglas Corporation
        to begin full-scale development of the new F-18 Air
        Combat Fighter.

In 1986, the shuttle Challenger was launched as 51-L on its
        10th and last mission.

                   January 29

Lawrence Hargrave:  born January 29, 1850
        born in Greenwich, England; in 1872, travelled
        to Australian in search of gold but the ship
        was wrecked off the coast of Queensland; he
        settled near Port Moesby and became an
        aeronautical pioneer; invented the box kite;
        on 12 November 1894, he linked four of his
        kites together, attached a seat and flew 16 feet;
        Wright Brothers used three of his designs in
        their first plane, the boxkite wing, the curved 
        wing surface and the thick wing leading edge;
        Alberto Santos-Dumont's first plane was constructed
        using Hargrave's box kites.

In 1926, an American altitude record of 38,704 feet was set
        by Lt. J. A. Macready (USAS) in an XCO5-A Liberty
        400 at Dayton, Ohio.

In 1927, Clyde Cessna sells his Travel Air stock and resigns
        as president.

In 1930, hydraulic arresting gear, a type which eventually
        proved susceptible of great refinement to absorb the
        energy of heavy aircraft landing at high speeds, was
        reported to be under development at NAS Hampton

In 1941, the first flight of the Tupolev Tu-2. It's model
        designation for the flight was ANT-58.

In 1947, from a position 660 miles off the Antarctic
        Continent, Philippine Sea launched to Little America
        the first of six R4D transport aircraft which she
        had ferried from Norfolk as a part of Operation
        Highjump. The first plane off, which was also the
        first carrier takeoff for an R4D, was piloted by
        Commander William M. Hawkes and carried Rear Admiral
        Richard E. Byrd as a passenger.

In 1953, the DOD announced plans to establish the National
        Pacific Missile Range (PMR) as part of the Naval Air
        Missile Test Center at Point Mugu, Calif., the range
        to be designed for long-range guided missile and
        ICBM testing.

In 1959, the first jet passenger service across the United
        States was begun by American Airlines with Boeing

In 1961, NASA announced establishment of Goddard Institute
        for Space Studies (GISS) in New York City, which
        would be an extension of the Theoretical Division of
        Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. It would
        be headed by Dr. Robert Jastrow.

In 1963, a Walleye television glide bomb, released from a
        YA-4B, made a direct impact on its target at the
        Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake in the first
        demonstration of its automatic homing feature.

In 1971, the Navy's newest carrier-based electronic warfare
        aircraft, the sophisticated EA-6B Prowler, entered
        service with VAQ-129 at NAS Whidbey Island. The
        Prowler, a derivative of the two-place A-6 Intruder,
        was lengthened to accommodate a fourplace cockpit
        and replaced the A-3 Skywarrior.

In 1979, the Learjet 28/29 series, first production airplane
        with winglets, receives type certification.

                   January 30

Franklin D. Roosevelt:  born January 30, 2882
        Born in Hyde Park NY. Elected President of
        the United States 4 times, 1932, 1936, 1940
        and 1944.

In 1933, the first radio broadcast of The Lone Ranger

In 1934, a Russian balloon reached 73,000 feet, but
        aeronauts Felosienko, Wasienko, and Vsyskin perished
        in free fall of the gondola.

In 1942, the Secretary authorized a glider program for the
        Marine Corps consisting of small and large types in
        sufficient numbers for the training and
        transportation of two battalions of 900 men each.

In 1946, the Advanced Aeronautical Engineering School is
        established at Wright Field..

In 1948, Orville Wright died in Dayton, Ohio, at the age of
        76, thus ending his 28 years as a member of the
        NACA. In his lifetime, the speed of the airplane had
        been increased from 30 mph to almost 1,000 mph.

In 1953, the first flight of Boeing B-47E Stratojet. Two
        YDB-47E's were completed in 1953 (sn 51-5219/5220)
        for service tests with the Bell GAM-63 Rascal
        surface to air missile.

In 1957, the Sikorski HSS-1 S-58 piston engined helicopter
        makes its first flight.

In 1960, the USAF orders the A-12.

In 1961, James E. Webb nominated as Administrator of NASA by
        President Kennedy.

In 1986, the first flight of the Boeing 767 (-300)

                    January 31

Andre-Jacques Garnerin:  born January 31, 1769
        First French aeronaut, pioneered the use of the
        parachute; began designing the parachute while
        in prison in Hungary during the French Revolution;
        he thought he could escape the prison by jumping
        off the high walls; on October 22, 1797, he made
        the first "jump" from a gas filled balloon using a
        basket attached to a silk parachute held open with
        supporting poles.

Charles Green:  born January 31, 1785
        English balloonist; famous for his 1836 flight from
        Vauxhall Gardens, London to Weilburg, Germany. The
        18 hour flight record was not beaten until 1907.

Walter Beech:  born January 31, 1891
        born near Pulaski, TN; some say January 30; first
        solo flight July 11, 1914 in a Curtiss Pusher;
        became a rated Army aviator and instructor; joined
        the Swallow Company in 1923; founded Travel Air
        with Clyde Cessna in 1924; merged Travel Air with
        Curtiss Wright; founded the Beech Aircraft Company
        on April 1, 1932; enshrined in the National
        Aviation Hall of Fame in 1977.

In 1930, Lieutenant Ralph E. Barnaby made a successful
        air-to-ground glider flight, dropping from the rigid
        dirigible Los Angeles (ZR-3) at an altitude of 3,000
        feet over Lakehurst, N.J.

In 1939, Dr. Edward P. Warner appointed economic and
        technical adviser of the CAA.

In 1949, Pan Am takes delivery of the first Boeing
        model 377 Stratocruiser.

In 1951, F-51 set new London to New York speed record of
        7 hours and 48 minutes. Captain Charles F. Blair,
        Jr., flew the P-51C "Excalibur III" on the record

        Blair flew his Mustang from New York to London
        breaking the existing speed record by 1 hour and
        7 minutes. This record stands today for
        reciprocating-engine, propeller-driven airplanes.
        Blair later became a Capt at PAA and Maureen
        O'Hara's husband.

In 1953, the first four victories by an F-94 are scored by
        Capt. B.L. Fithian with Capt. S.R. Lyons.

In 1958, EXPLORER I, first U.S. earth satellite, launched by
        modified ABMA-JPL Jupiter-C, with U.S.-IGY
        scientific experiment of James A. Van Allen, which
        discovered the radiation belt around the earth.

In 1961, an eight-engine static test firing of the Saturn
        test booster (Sa-T1) for 113 seconds was completed
        at Marshall Space Flight Center.

In 1961, Mercury-Redstone (MR-2) flight from Atlantic
        Missile Range shot Mercury capsule containing
        chimpanzee named Ham to 157 miles altitude and 418
        miles down range. Capsule with life-support
        equipment functioned well but flight was 42 miles
        higher and 125 miles farther than programmed. Ham
        was recovered in good health.

In 1961, a Marine Corps helicopter of HMR(L)-262 made an at
        sea recovery of a Mercury capsule, bearing the
        chimpanzee Ham.

In 1971, Apollo 14 was launched with Alan Shepard, Stuart
        Roosa and Edgar Mitchell aboard.

In 1977, the TA-7C, a two-seat Corsair II converted from an
        earlier model and designated a combat crew and
        instrument trainer, was delivered to the Navy for
        use at NAS Cecil Field and NAS Lemoore. Replacement
        pilots for the light attack squadrons flying A-7s
        will train in the TA-7Cs.

In 1995, the Air Force Reserve opened its first associate
        KC-135 Stratotanker unit, the 931st Air Refueling
        Group, at McConnell AFB, Wichita, Kansas.