This Day in Aviation History Files, compiled by Don Kutter on the AVSIG forum at
 August 1

In 1907, to coordinate Army efforts, Brig. Gen. James Allen,
        the Chief Signal Officer, established an
        Aeronautical Division making it responsible for "all
        matters pertaining to military ballooning, air
        machines, and all kindred subjects." It began with
        one officer, two enlisted men and one civilian.
        They waited two years for delivery of the first

In 1911, Harriet Quimby became the first woman to receive a
        Federation Aeronautic Internationale (FAI) pilot's

In 1919, the first International Aircraft Exposition since
        Armistice, at Amsterdam, Holland.

In 1921, a World War I high-altitude bombsight, mounted on a
        gyroscopically stabilized base, was tested by the
        Torpedo Squadron, Atlantic Fleet at Yorktown, Va.,
        marking the successful completion of the first phase
        of Carl L. Norden's development of an effective
        high-altitude bombsight for the Bureau of Ordnance.

In 1925, Naval Air Detail, under Lt. Comdr. R. E. Byrd,
        began aerial exploration of 30,000-square-mile area
        near Etah, North Greenland, with three Loening
        amphibians, as part of the MacMillan expedition.

In 1925, the Curtiss Condor, first of new series of night
        bombers, made its first flight at Garden City, Long

In 1927, fire damaged interior of variable-density wind
        tunnel at Langley Laboratory, which when
        reconstructed was used in conjunction with jet-type
        wind tunnel produced airflow in 12-inch chamber in
        excess of 800 mph.
In 1929, Twin Cities businessmen led by Richard C. Lilly of
        St. Paul purchase Northwest Airways from the
        original Michigan investor group. Lilly is named
        president. First night air mail flight between the
        Twin Cities-Chicago. The Government adopts
        Northwest's "U.S. Air Mail" insignia for all air
        mail carriers.

In 1934, Lieutenant (jg) C. H. Kendall and Lieutenant (jg)
        H. T. Orville, in a 206.4-mile flight from
        Birmingham, Ala., to Commerce, Ga., won the National
        Elimination Balloon Race and qualified for the
        international race.

In 1941, a Microwave (AI-10) radar developed by the
        Radiation Laboratory and featuring a Plan Position
        Indicator (or PPI) was given its initial airborne
        test in the XJO-3 at Boston Airport.

        During the tests, surface vessels were detected
        at ranges up to 40 miles; radar-guided approaches
        against simulated enemy aircraft were achieved at
        ranges up to 3.5 miles.

In 1949, Northwest Airlines takes delivery of its first
        Boeing B-377 Stratocruiser. The large and luxurious
        double-deck aircraft features on-board passenger
        lounges for relaxation on long trans-Pacific
        flights. Northwest becomes the first airline to
        offer beverage service within the U.S. on the Boeing

In 1950, Patrick Air Force Base, administrative headquarters
        of the AFMTC at Cape Canaveral, offiically named
        after Gen. Mason M. Patrick.

In 1954, the fifth International Congress on Astronautics
        began, at Innsbruck, Austria.

In 1955, the first zero gravity research flights were

In 1966, the 90-passenger DC-9-10 was expanded into the
        DC-9-30, which first flew on this date. The DC-9-30
        was 15 feet longer than the DC-9-10. It had a 4-foot
        increase in wingspan and could carry up to 115
        passengers. It was accorded prompt and widespread
        airline acceptance.

In 1969, the Naval Air Systems Command issued a contract to
        Lockheed Aircraft Corporation for development of the
        S-3A, a carrier based antisubmarine warfare plane
        designed for all weather operation and equipped with
        modern detection and data processing equipment. It
        was scheduled to replace the S-2 Tracker in the

In 1975, a KA-3B Skywarrior, attached to VAQ-208, completed
        the longest non-stop flight ever made by a carrier-
        based tactical jet aircraft. The flight originated
        at the Naval Station, Rota, Spain and ended at NAS
        Alameda, California. It covered a distance of 6,100
        miles and lasted 13 hours.

In 1980, the first flight of TR-1A, Lockheed Test Pilot:
        Ken Weir

                    August 2

In 1909, the US Army accepts its first airplane, bought from
        the Wright Brothers for $25,000 plus a $5,000 bonus
        because the machine exceeds the speed requirement of
        40 mph. The Wright Military Flyer became Signal
        Corps Airplane No. 1.

In 1909, Petawawa, the site of the first flight in Ontario,
        J.A.D. McCurdy pilots the Silver Dart for a series
        of planned flights for the Canadian Armed Forces

        The Dart was ready for testing on the second day of
        August and made three successful flights over the
        field at the military base. They were each
        approximately one kilometer in duration. On the
        first flight McCurdy was the aviator and on the
        second flight Casey flew as a passenger. On the
        third flight McCurdy had Willie Macdonald of Baddeck
        as his passenger.

        When they attempted a fourth flight McCurdy and
        Baldwin hit a knoll in the field. It was quite
        evident that the terrain of the military base was
        unsuitable for testing aircraft but no one in the
        militia had any experience in this new field. The
        Silver Dart was damaged beyond repair but McCurdy
        and Baldwin escaped with only minor injuries.

In 1913, the first 4 engine aircraft, the Sikorsky Le Grand,
        made a world endurance record 1 hour 54 minute
        flight with eight passengers aboard.

In 1918, the 135th Corps Observation Squadron makes its
        first wartime patrol in US assembled DH-4's powered
        by American made Liberty engines.

In 1922, an unofficial three-man altitude record of 23,350
        feet was set at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio, by Lt.
        L. Wade, Capt. A. W. Stevens, and Sergeant Longham
        in a supercharged Air Service bomber.

In 1946, the National Air Museum was established under the
        Smithsonian Institution by act of Congress.

In 1978, the mock-up of the SH-60B ASW helicopter was put
        through shipboard compatibility trials aboard Arthur
        W. Radford. Earlier trials were conducted July 25-26
        aboard Oliver Hazard Perry. The SH-60B was being
        developed by Sikorsky Aircraft.

        Related story: IIRC, the SH-60B was the first DOD
        aircraft procurement project in which the aircraft
        manufacturer was not the prime contractor.  Again,
        IIRC, prime was IBM with Sikorsky as a

        Anyway, the USS Arthur W. Radford was a ship we
        used to have some fun with. On the secure VHF, where
        ship's names were used, we used to slur it so
        Radford came out as "Ratf**k".  It was a long time
        before they picked up on it.  :)

        Radford also yanked Yugoslavian tug hard enough to
        capsize it.  I don't remember what port that happened
        in.  I don't think it was Rijecka <sp?>.

                   August 3

Ernie Pyle:  born August 3, 1900
        US journalist, known for his WW-II stories

In 1911, an Italian, Commander Piazza, is the world's first
        pilot to fly a military mission - he flies
        reconnaissance missions over Tripoli.

In 1944, the Eighth AF B-17's attack marshalling yards at
        Saarbrucken.  Fifteenth AF B-17's and B-24's
        attack chemical works at Friedrichshafen and
        marshalling yards at Immenstadt. Escort fighter
        pilot, 2nd Lt. Robert H. Brown, 318th FS becomes
        an Ace with the downing of a Bf 109.

In 1952, the first flight of the prototype Avro 698 Vulcan.

In 1954, Navy F2Y-1 Sea Dart, a hydro-ski water-based
        fighter, becomes the first seaplane to exceed the
        speed of sound at San Diego, California. The aircraft
        reached its maximum speed in a dive.

In 1961, the Director of Defense Research and Engineering
        approved revisions to the tri-Service Vertical Take-
        Off and Landing (VTOL) program whereby
        administrative responsibility for a tilting wing
        aircraft (later developed as the XC-142) was
        transferred from the Navy to the Air Force but with
        the three services continuing to share the cost

In 1971, pilots of VMA-142, 131 and 133 began qualification
        landings in A-4L's aboard the Independence. During a
        three-day period, four active-duty and 20 reserve
        pilots operated aboard the carrier. This was the
        first time that Marine Air Reserve squadrons
        qualified in carrier duty.

In 1978 the Naval Air Systems Command reported a major
        advance in the technology of escape systems. During
        the summer, the Naval Weapons Center at China Lake
        successfully tested a vertical-seeking ejection
        seat. While carrying a dummy crew member, the seat
        was fired downward from a suspended test module. It
        traveled downward less than 45 feet before
        reversing direction and traveling upward; it then
        parachuted safely to the ground. These tests
        demonstrated that the vertical-seeking seat would
        make it possible to safely eject upside down, within
        50 feet of the surface, thus greatly increasing the
        safety envelope of ejection seats.

In 1981, the beginning of the PATCO air traffic controllers

                     August 4

Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong:  born August 4, 1901
        Musician, trumpet

In 1921, 5,000 catalpa trees were successfully sprayed from
        an airplane in 15 minutes, at Troy, Ohio.

In 1939, Yorktown and Enterprise made successful launchings
        of SBC-3 and O3U-3 aircraft from flight deck and
        hangar deck catapults in the first practical
        demonstration of launching aircraft from carriers by
        means of a hydraulic flush-deck catapult and in the
        first demonstrations of catapulting aircraft from
        the hangar deck.

In 1944, the first Aphrodite mission, a radio-controlled
        B-17 carrying 20,000 pounds of TNT, is flown against
        V-2 rocket sites in the Pas de Calais area of

In 1944, the Meteor EE 216 became first British jet fighter
        to destroy an enemy aircraft, the destruction of a
        German V-1 Flying Bomb by tipping it with a wingtip.

In 1955, the first official flight of the U-2, Lockheed Test
        Pilot Tony LeVier
In 1960, X-15 (No. 1) rocket airplane with interim engines
        established new unofficial world speed record of
        2,196 mph, with Joseph Walker, NASA test pilot, at
        the controls. This topped Joe's record of 2,111 mph
        which was set on 12 May 1960 and Captain Apt's
        speed of 2,094 mph attained in the X-2 on
        September 27, 1956.

        The next record of this type aircraft was 2275 mph
        set on 7 Feb 61 by Bob White.

In 1963, U-2 flown to North Island NAS and is hoisted on
        USS Kitty Hawk(CV-63) to undergo carrier trails.

                    August 5

In 1844, the cornerstone for the Statue of Liberty was laid
        on Bedloe's Island.

In 1915, Lieutenant P. N. L. Bellinger, flying the
        Burgess-Dunne AH-10, spotted mortar fire for Army
        shore batteries at Fortress Monroe, Va., signaling
        his spots with Very pistol flares.

In 1918, a flying boat piloted by Ensign Ashton W. Hawkins
        with Lieutenant (jg) George F. Lawrence as second
        pilot, took off from NAS Killingholme in rain and
        poor visibility at 10:30 p.m. to patrol a course
        intercepting a reported Zeppelin raid. The patrol
        was made in good weather above the clouds without
        sighting the enemy and came down through heavy
        weather at South Shields, England, at 5:30 a.m.
        almost out of fuel. It was the first American night
        combat patrol out of Killingholme and may have been
        the first of the war by a U.S. Naval aviator.

Neil Armstrong:  born August 5, 1930
        US Astronaut; first man to walk on the Moon

In 1931, the first flight of the Wilford WRK (after E. Burke
        Wilford, Walter Riesler, and Walter Kreiser).
        Built under a Navy research contract, this new
        autogiro replaced the hinged rotors with a rigid
        rotor with cyclic pitch variation. Cyclic pitch
        variation is a method where the pitch of the blades
        is changed as they spin.  The pitch is lowered when
        they are moving in the direction of the aircraft,
        and raised hen they are moving in the opposite

In 1937, the experimental Lockheed XC-35, made its
        first flight at Wright Field.

In 1954, the first B-52A (52-0001) (which was rolled out at
        Seattle on March 18, 1954) made its first flight.

In 1954, Bell X-2 (No. 2) was flown on its first glide
        flight by Lt. Col. Frank K. Everest (USAF), at
        Edwards AFB.

In 1961, the first Saturn (SA-1) booster began water trip to
        Cape Canaveral on Navy barge Compromise after
        overland detour around Wheeler Dam.

In 1963, Lockheed Test Pilot Bob Schumacher takes off and
        makes  several approaches to USS Kitty Hawk(CV-63)
        in the U-2.
In 1972, a Naval Air Test Center pilot made the first fully
        automated landing aboard the carrier Ranger in an
        F-4J Phantom II. The test landing device links the
        plane's controls with a computer aboard ship and
        enables the aircraft to land with the pilot's hands
        off the controls. The system was developed to make
        safer landings at night and in low visibility

In 1975, NASA pilot John Manke landed an X-24B lifting body
        on an Edwards AFB runway proving that a space
        shuttle like vehicle could be landed safely on a
        designated runway after returning from orbit.

In 1981, the federal government began firing striking
        PATCO members.

                    August 6

In 1927, a Soviet K30 aircraft performed a world speedrecord
        flight for seaplanes with 1000kg payload over 1000km
        with 171 km/h in 10hrs 42 minutes. The flight was
        finally extended to a range of 1176 km.

        The designer and manufacturer of the K30 was the
        Junkers company who had established the AB
        Flyindustri in Limhamn, Sweden to escape the
        restrictions of the Versailles treaty. The K30 had
        made its first flight in 1926 in Dessau and was a
        military variant of the G24, an example of which was
        also used to test a floatplane configuration as
        apparently used by the soviet K30. The K30,
        designed by Ernst Zindel, was a all-metal,
        low-wing, cantilever trimotor aircraft of obvious
        similarity to the famous Ju 52/3m Zindel designed

In 1931, a shipment of livestock from St Louis to Newark, NJ,
       on TWA is listed as the first air cargo service in
       the US.

In 1937, a contract was issued to Goodyear for two new non
        -rigid airships, the L-1 for training purposes, and
        the K-2 for coastal patrol.

In 1945, Major Richard Bong was killed in a P-80 accident.
        Major Bong was the top Ace in the history of the US
        with 40 confirmed kills in WWII. The crash occured
        at Burbank, California when the engine of his P-80A
        [44-85048] failed on take-off. He and Clay Tice both
        flew with 49th Fighter Group.

In 1945, the "Little Boy" bomb was dropped on Hiroshima from
        the B-29 "Enola Gay".

In 1946, two unmanned B-17 drones were flown from Hilo,
        Hawaii, to Muroc, California.

In 1947, the Bell XS-1 #1 (X-1-1), Serial 46-062, made its
        first Air Force glide flight with Capt. Charles E.
        Yeager as Pilot. The X-1 series aircraft were air-
        launched from a modified Boeing B-29-95-BW Superfortress
        bomber BuAer No. 84029  production 45-21787.

        Navy Conversion to P2B Series: P2B-1S (BAN: 84029) was
        modified as the carrier aircraft for the Douglas
        D-558-II Skyrocket high-speed rocket-powered research
        aircraft. This P2B-1S aircraft was named "Fertile Myrtle"
        and carried the NACA number of 137. This aircraft now
        with "K. Weeks" carrying U.S. Reg. N29KW.

In 1961, the U.S.S.R. launched Vostok II into orbit carrying
        Major Gherman S. Titov. The spacecraft weighed 13
        pounds more than Vostok I (April 12) and progress of
        Cosmonaut Titov's flight was reported continuously
        of Radio Moscow. This was the first human in space
        longer than 24 hours.

                   August 7

In 1919, Capt. Ernest C. Hoy, in a Curtiss Jenny biplane, became
        the first to fly across the Canadian Rockies.  After
        zigzagging between mountain peaks, barely scraping
        over treetops, and fighting strong winds, Captain
        Hoy landed in Lethbridge Calgary 16 hours 42 minutes
        after taking off from Vancouver. (It was also the first
        air mail flight across the Rockies.)

        The Curtiss Jenny biplane could only reach altitudes
        of 7,000 feet.  Captain Hoy left Vancouver and flew
        via Vernon, Grand Forks, Cranbrook and Lethbridge,
        arriving to a hero's welcome in Calgary less than
        seventeen hours later. On his return trip via another
        route, Hoy swerved to avoid people on the runway at
        Golden, British Columbia, and crashed. Captain Hoy,
        and his Jenny, returned to Vancouver by train.

In 1936, a change in the Naval Aviation Flight Syllabus
        flight syllabus was approved which
        placed more emphasis on instrument flying. The new
        course, which was inserted between the service
        seaplane and fighter courses, was given by a new
        instrument flying unit formed at Pensacola, Fla.,
        for the purpose, and included six hours in Link
        trainers, nine hours of modified acrobatics in NS
        aircraft, and two hours radio range flying under the

In 1941, the Chief, Bureau of Aeronautics issued a
        preliminary plan for installing radar in naval
        aircraft. Long range search radar (British ASV or
        American ASA) was to be installed in patrol planes.
        Short range search radar (British Mk II ASV
        modified for Fleet Air Arm or American ASB) was to
        be installed in one torpedo plane in each section
        commencing with the TBF while space needed for
        search radar was to be reserved in new scout-dive-
        bombers and scout-observation planes. Interception
        equipment, when available, would be installed in
        some F4U's and a British AI Mk IV radar was being
        installed in an SBD with a view to its use as an
        interim interceptor. The plan also included
        installation of appropriate radio altimeters in
        patrol and torpedo planes, and recognition equipment
        in all service airplanes.

In 1942 (through 9 February 1943) --Capture of Guadalcanal--
        Air support for the U.S Marines' first amphibious
        landing of World War II was provided by three
        carriers of Air Support Force (Rear Admiral L.
        Noyes), and by Navy, Marine, and Army units of
        Aircraft, South Pacific (Rear Admiral J. S. McCain)
        operating from bases on New Caledonia and in the New

In 1943, a German turbojet fighter, a Messerschmitt Me-262,
        was demonstrated before Adolf Hitler in East

In 1950, ZP2K-1 (subsequently redesignated ZSG-2), a K-Class
        airship  modernized and equipped with in flight
        refueling equipment and attachments for picking up
        sea water as ballast, was delivered to the Navy.

In 1950, flight of a helicopter under automatic control was
        made at Mustin Field, Philadelphia using an HO3S-1
        helicopter equipped with a single axis automatic
        pilot. Successful test of this instrument confirmed
        the feasibility of a helicopter automatic pilot
        which was being developed under the leadership of
        L. S. Guarino at the Aeronautical Instrument
        Laboratory, Naval Air Material Center.

In 1951, the McDonnell XF3H-1 Demon, an experimental model
        of a Navy shipboard jet fighter, completed its first
        flight at St. Louis.

In 1951, the Navy's sonic research plane, the D-558-2
        Skyrocket, piloted by Douglas test pilot William B.
        Bridgeman, set an unofficial world speed record of
        1,238 m.p.h. over Muroc, Calif.

In 1961, it was reported from Moscow that Major Titov had
        successfully landed in Vostok II after 17 orbits and
        25 hours, 18 minutes, the first test of man's
        reaction to prolonged weightlessness. This was the
        second manned orbital flight, the first manned
        flight of more than one orbit.

In 1961, two U.S. Air Force officers were sealed in space
        simulator for 17-day test of man's reaction to
        almost pure oxygen at 350,000 feet altitude, at
        School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force
        Base, Tex. Emerging on August 25, Lts. B. Appel and
        J. Slider had eaten dehydrated food, drunk water
        processed from the atmosphere and their own body
        wastes, and were pronounced in good physical

In 1978, the first flight of the General Dynamics F-16
        Fighting Falcon.  The F-16 began as the General
        Dynamics model 401.  A fly-off between it and the
        Northrop P600 began in 1974 at Edwards AFB.  On
        January 13, 1975, the YF-16 was announced as the
        winner.  The first production F-16 was delivered
        to the USAF on August 17, 1978.

                    August 8

In 1908, at The Hunaudieres Race Course, Le Mans, France,
        Wilbur Wright surpasses French flight records for
        duration, distance and altitude.

        Records: Flown by Wilbur Wright: 1 min. 45 sec.
        2 rounds of field ca. 10 m. (30-35 ft).

        "The first public flight by the Wright brothers."
        Witnesses of the flights included Ernest Archdeacon,
        Hart O. Berg, Leon Bollee, Louis Bleriot, Francois
        Peyrey, Rene Gasnier, Ernest Zens, Paul Zens, Pierre
        Gasnier, Robert Guerin, Capt. Alexandre Sazerac de
        Forge, Count Henri de Moy, and two Russian officers. 

        A tick control was used by the Wrights for the first
        time.  Wilbur was assisted on the takeoff by Hare O.
        Berg's chauffeur, Fleury, who held right wing in
        balance until accelerating speed of machine left him

In 1924, Shenandoah (ZR-1) secured to the mooring mast on
        Patoka (AO 9) while underway in Narragansett Bay,
        remained moored to the ship during her passage to
        anchor off Jamestown, R.I., and cast off next day,
        almost 24 hours later. This was the first use of the
        mooring mast erected on shipboard to facilitate
        airship operations with the fleet.

In 1928, the Boeing Model 80 entered service. In all, 15 of
        the twelve passenger planes were built. A year later
        Boeing introduced the model 80A. With a lengthened
        fuselage, this aircraft could carry 18-passengers.

In 1929, a round-the-world flight of the German rigid
        airship Graf Zeppelin began. It ended on August

In 1933, Commander Aircraft, Battle Force, requested
        authority to use variable-pitch propellers during
        forthcoming exercises on six Boeing F4B-4's of VF-3,
        based aboard Langley, and on one F4B-4 of VF-1,
        based aboard Saratoga. This request, which stemmed
        from successful trials conducted by VF-3 aboard the
        Langley, marked the initial service acceptance of
        the variable-pitch propeller.

In 1946, the first flight of the Convair XB-36, the
        development of which had begun in 1941.

In 1947, A.L. Berger, an engineer at Wright Field, received
        the Thurman H. Bane Award for work in developing new
        types of high temperature ceramic coatings for use
        in aircraft engines.

In 1949, Air Force Major Frank K. Everest Jr. flew the
        XS-1 #1 Serial 46-062, aircraft to a new unofficial
        altitude record of 71,902 feet. It was the 125th
        flight of the program.

In 1949, the first operational emergency use of T-1 partial
        pressure suit by Maj. F. K. Everest (USAF) in X-1
        aircraft at 69,000 feet; suit's automatic operation
        saved pilot and aircraft.

In 1955, shortly before launch from a B-29, X-1A Serial
        48-1384 suffered low-order explosion, later traced
        to detonation of Ulmer leather gaskets. Pilot Walker
        exited into B-29 bomb bay. Extent of damage
        prohibited landing crippled X-1A, NACA B-29
        launch crew jettisoned it into desert. It exploded
        and burned on impact.

In 1958, the President nominated Dr. T. Keith Glennan to be
        Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space
        Administration, and Dr. Hugh L. Dryden as Deputy

                    August 9

In 1919, construction of the rigid airship ZR-1, the future
        Shenandoah and the Navy's first rigid airship, was
        authorized by the Secretary of the Navy. This
        airship was constructed at the Naval Aircraft
        Factory at Philadelphia and assembled at Lakehurst.
        Shenandoah (an Indian name) means:  "Daughter of the
        Stars". ZR-1 (despite being 10-feet longer) was a
        German design and constructed from the "exact" LZ 96
        (L-49 Navy) building plans forwarded to the
        U.S.N.A.F. from the Zeppelin Factory at Lowenthall,

In 1921, Rear Admiral B. A. Fiske, USN (Ret.), proposed as a
        landing surface for aircraft carriers, "a nice soft
        cushion" so mounted "that it would take up the
        forward motion of the airplane and not check its
        forward velocity at once."

In 1926, in a day of tests to determine the speed with which
        aircraft could be operated at sea, pilots of VF
        Squadron 1 completed 127 landings aboard Langley. As
        a result of the experience gained, the same squadron
        later landed 12 planes in 21 minutes under the
        emergency conditions created when the ship ran into
        a heavy mist.

In 1929, the ZMC-2, a metal clad 200,000-cubic foot airship
        built by Aircraft Development Corporation, made its
        first flight at Grosse Ile (Detroit) Airport. This
        airship, subsequently delivered to NAS Lakehurst,
        was utilized several years for training purposes.

In 1937, the contractor's demonstration flights of the XOZ-1
        rotary-winged aircraft, which included a water
        takeoff, were completed at the Naval Aircraft
        Factory. Pennsylvania Aircraft Corporation had
        modified this aircraft from an N2Y-1 trainer into an
        experimental gyroplane by installing a new engine
        and a rotary wing with cyclic control.

In 1939, Congress authorized construction of second NACA
        research station at Moffett Field, Calif., which
        became the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, named after
        Joseph S. Ames, president emeritus of Johns Hopkins
        University, member of the NACA from its beginning in
        1915 to 1939, and Chairman of NACA from 1927 until

In 1945, the Japanese Target of Kokura, Japan was
        cloud-covered... so the B-29 "Bock's Car" proceeded
        with "Fat Man" to Nagasaki.

In 1949, the first use in the United States of a
        pilot-ejection seat for an emergency escape, was
        made by Lieutenant J. L. Fruin of VF-171 from an
        F2H-1 Banshee while making over 500 knots in the
        vicinity of Walterboro, S.C.

In 1961, an enormous reception for Cosmonaut Gherman S.
        Titov in Red Square, Moscow. That evening at a
        Kremlin reception, Premier Nikita Khrushchev made an
        impromptu speech in which he asserted that the
        Soviet Union could construct a rocket with an
        explosive warhead equivalent to 100 million tons of

                    August 10

In 1916, negotiation for the first aircraft production
        contract began with a telegram to Glenn Curtiss
        requesting him to "call at the Bureau (Construction
        and Repair) Monday with a proposition to supply at
        the earliest date practicable thirty school hydro
        aeroplanes." Specified characteristics included:
        two seats, loading of about four pounds per square
        foot, and power loading of about twenty pounds per
        horsepower. The telegram concluded "Speed, climb and
        details of construction to be proposed by you. Rate
        of delivery is important and must be guaranteed."
        This telegram resulted in a contract for thirty N-9
        which were delivered between November 1916 and
        February 1917. The aircraft became the Navy's most
        popular training aircraft during World War I.
        The N-9 was a retrimmed J-4 "Jenny" with more wing
        area, floats and a 100-hp OXX engine. 

In 1917, ground was broken for the Naval Aircraft Factory at
        the Philadelphia Navy Yard.

In 1921, a General Order established the Bureau of
        Aeronautics, with Rear Adm. William A. Moffett as
        first chief, and defined its duties under the
        Secretary of the Navy as comprising "all that
        relates to designing, building, fitting out and
        repairing Naval and Marine Corps aircraft".

In 1949, the Avro Canada C-102 Jetliner first flew.

In 1959, USAF canceled a research program to develop exotic
        chemicals fuels for proposed Mach 3 B-70 bomber and
        F-108 interceptor.

In 1961, X-15 (No. 1) on its first flight with new XLR-99
        engine was flown to 2,735 miles per hour by Comdr.
        Forrest S. Petersen, U.S. Navy, at Edwards Air Force

In 1974, Sikorsky's YCH-53E, Number 1, flew in a hover at a
        gross weight of 71,700 pounds. It carried an
        external load of 17.8 tons and hovered at a wheel
        height of fifty feet. This was the heaviest gross
        weight ever flown--and the heaviest payload ever
        lifted--by a helicopter in the western world.

                    August 11

In 1909 the Baddeck I made a flight of 100 metres at
        Petawawa. They were experiencing engine failure so
        no more test flights were attempted that day.

In 1915, the Naval Observatory requested the Eastman Kodak
        Company to develop an aerial camera with high-speed
        lens, suitable for photography at 1,000 to 2,000
        yards altitude, and so constructed that the pressure
        of the air during flight would not distort the

In 1918, Ensign James B. Taylor made the initial flight in
        the Loening M-2 Kitten landplane at Mineola, Long
        Island. This aircraft, which was intended for use
        aboard ship, was not successful; but is of special
        interest because it was the first monoplane
        developed under Navy contract; was one of the
        smallest aircraft ever built for the Navy with a
        weight empty of less than 300 pounds, and, although
        equipped with a British ABC motor for flight, was
        designed for use with a two-cylinder Lawrance 30-
        horsepower air-cooled engine which was the
        predecessor of the large American air-cooled radial

In 1921, practical development of carrier arresting gear was
        initiated at Hampton Roads as Lieutenant A. M. Pride
        taxied an Aeromarine onto the dummy deck, and
        engaged arresting wires. These tests resulted in the
        development of arresting gear for the Langley,
        consisting essentially of both athwartship wires
        attached to weights, and fore and aft wires.

In 1924, observation planes from the light cruiser Raleigh
        (CL 7) took off from the water near the Arctic
        Circle on the first of several reconnaissance
        flights over the Greenland coast from Angmagsalik to
        Cape Farewell to locate suitable emergency landing
        areas for the Army flyers, then crossing the
        Atlantic, via Iceland, on the last leg of their
        round-the-world flight.

In 1944, an electric powered rescue hoist was installed on
        an HNS-1 helicopter at CGAS Floyd Bennett Field.
        During the ensuing 4 day test period, in which
        flights were conducted over Jamaica Bay, the
        feasibility of rescuing personnel from the water and
        of transferring personnel and equipment to and from
        underway boats was demonstrated. Six weeks later, a
        hydraulic hoist, which overcame basic disadvantages
        of the electric hoist, was installed and
        successfully tested, leading to its adoption for
        service use.

In 1944, Dr. M. F. Bates of the Sperry Gyroscope Company
        submitted a brief report of the trial installation
        and flight test of a helicopter automatic pilot
        (cyclic pitch control) in an HNS-1 at CGAS Floyd
        Bennett Field.

In 1960, in the first recovery of an object after it had
        been in orbit, a Navy HRS-3 helicopter, operating
        from the Haiti Victory of the Pacific Missile Range,
        recovered the instrumented capsule discharged by
        Discoverer XIII on its 17th pass around the earth.
        The capsule was located about 330 miles northwest of
        Honolulu by Air Force planes which directed the ship
        toward the spot. Recovery was made less than three
        hours after the capsule hit the water.

In 1961, Thomas F. Dixon of North American Aviation was
        appointed Director of NASA's Office of Launch
        Vehicle Programs (OLVP), effective September 18,
        1961. He replaced Maj. Gen. Don R. Ostrander, U.S.
        Air Force, who returned to military duty as Vice
        Commander of AFBSD (AFSC), having served as first
        Director of OLVP since December 16, 1959.

In 1961, Vostok II press conference held in Moscow,
        featuring President of the Soviet Academy of
        Sciences, Matislav Keldysh, and Cosmonaut Maj.
        Gherman S. Titov.

In 1962, the USSR launched Vostok 3, followed on 8/12 by
        Vostok 4. Cosmonauts Nikolayev and Popovich piloted
        their craft to within 4 miles of each other
        completing the first space rendezvous.

In 1977, the first CH-46E Sea Knight with newly developed
        fiberglass rotor blades was flown by Marine Corps
        helicopter pilots. The helicopter was the first of
        400 to be retrofitted with new rotor blades which
        were less susceptible to corrosion and fatigue

                    August 12

In 1916, the Secretary of the Navy agreed with the Secretary
        of War that the straight Deperdussin system of
        controlling aircraft in flight be adopted as the
        standard system for use in all aircraft of both

In 1941, an Ercoupe impelled by 6 powder rockets of 50
        pounds thrust each, piloted by Lt. Homer A. Boushey,
        first flew on rocket power alone after an initial
        boost from a towing automobile. Not sure this date
        is correct. Several sources claim this first flight
        could be August 16 or August 23.

        I did find out that Lt. Boushey became Brig. General
        Boushey. Here is some more information:
        Boushey was born 1909 in SF, California, graduated from
        Hollywood HS and Stanford with a BS in Engineering.

        In June 1932 enrolled as a flying cadet and trained at
        Randolph and Kelly Fields, San Antonio, TX. Was Air Corps
        reserve 2nd LT and completed 20 months extended active
        duty with the 8th Pursuit Group at Langley Field, VA.

        In 1936 he became 2nd LT Regular Army Air Corps and from 1938
        to 1939 he attended the Air Corps maintenance engineering '
        course at Chanute Field, IL. From 1939 to 1957 his
        assignments were with Air Force research and development
        activities, operational fighter units and Headquarters
        Air Force Staff.
        In the Spring of 1941 he was the project officer, flew the
        first experimental aircraft jet-assisted take-off tests
        and made the first flight in the US powered by rocket
        power alone.

        In 1943, he became the Air Corps' first commander of a jet
        organization when the 412th Fighter Group was organized on
        a confidential status at Muroc, CA. In 1947 he led the first
        over-water flight of jet aircraft when one squadron of
        P-80 aircraft was transferred from the Philippines to

        In 1952 he was assigned to the Wright Air Development Center
        where he held the positions of Chief, Equipment Laboratory;
        Director of Weapon Systems; Chief of Staff; and Vice
        Commander. Later he was assigned to ARDC, Baltimore, as
        Assistant Deputy Commander for Research and Development.

        In July 1957 he was designated Deputy Director of R&D, Headquarters
        US Air Force, Washington DC. In 1960, he assumed duty as Commander
        of the Arnold Engineering Development Center, ARDC at
        Tullahoma, TN.

        His decorations include the Legion of Merit with Oak Leaf
        Cluster, Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Medal and
        the Guided Missile Insignia. He was rated a Command Pilot.

        More Bousey stuff on the 16th.

In 1945, the 80th Fighter Squadron flew its final combat
        mission of WW-II.  During WW-II, the Headhunters
        flew over 60,000 air-miles, deployed to 21
        different locations, accounted for over 225
        enemy aircraft destroyed, received the Presidential
        Unit Citation, ten campaign credits, four
        Distinguished Unit Citations and the Philippine
        Presidential Unit Citation.

In 1957, an F3D Skynight, with Lieutenant Commander Don
        Walker aboard, was landed on Antietam, at sea off
        Pensacola, by the Automatic Carrier Landing System.
        This landing began the first shipboard test of the
        system designed to bring planes aboard in all
        weather conditions without help from the pilot. In
        the period 12-20 August more than 50 fully automatic
        landings were completed.

In 1960, X-15 (No. 1) with interim engines and with Maj.
        Robert M. White (USAF) at the controls, established
        a new altitude record for a manned vehicle of
        136,500 feet. This topped Captain Kincheloe's record
        altitude of 126,200 feet attained on September 7,
        1956, in the X-2 rocket research aircraft.

In 1960, NASA's ECHO I, the first passive communications
        satellite, successfully launched into orbit by a
        Thor-Delta. It demonstrated the feasibility of
        global radio communications via satellites.

In 1966, the first flight of the Lear Model 25.

In 1977, the first manned, active, free flight of the
        Enterprise OV-101 shuttle. Flight crew was Fred
        Haise and Charles "Gordo" Fullerton. Location
        was Edwards AFB. The flight lasted 5 minutes
        21 seconds. Joe Engle chased Freddie in a
        NASA T-38. 

In 1981, IBM introduced the Personal Computer. It wasn't the
        first small computer.  Apple and Commodoe already
        were in the market.  But the IBM PC set the standard
        that others would emulate. The first PC had a 5 MHz
        internal speed.  With one floppy drive and a so-so
        printer, it sold for $3,200.

        Anticipating a market of 240,000, it sold that many
        the first month.  In 2000, it was estimated that
        52% of U.S. homes have personal computers--most
        clear descendants of that first system marketed
        by IBM just 19 years before.  

                    August 13

In 1944, the Fourteenth Air Force long-range aircraft
        reconnoiter the docks at Manila. Upon learning
        of this mission, both Generals Stillwell and
        MacArthur warn Major General Claire L.
        Chennault that he was "not" authorized to open a
        bombing campaign against targets in the Philippines.

In 1946, Congress approved the Hale Plan, also known as the
        "Flying Midshipmen." The program was designed to
        provide the Navy with qualified pilots in the post-
        World War II period.

In 1976, an HU-16 Albatross, the Navy's last operational
        seaplane made its final water landing in Pensacola
        Bay. After two touch-and-go landings the aircraft
        was flown to Sherman Field where it was turned over
        to the Naval Aviation Museum in Pensacola, Florida.

                     August 14

Captain Albert Ball:  born August 14, 1896
        Born in Nottingham, England. British pilot
        with 44 confirmed victories. He died while in
        combat with Lothar von Richthofen ("Red Barron's
        brother") on 6 May 1917, near Sancourt, France.

        "Lothar", flying an Albatross DIII, came down out
        of the clouds first and crash landed, but escaped
        being killed. Less than a minute later Ball came
        down out of the clouds in an inverted flat span and
        died in the crash of his SE-5A (A4850).

In 1919, the first airmail delivered at sea, by Aeromarine
        flying boat to the White liner Adriatic (Br.).

In 1955, X-1B, serial 48-1385, was delivered to Edwards AFB.
        It had been sent to NACA Langley for installation of
        its test instrumentation. Its first flight was
        this day, with NACA pilot John B. "Jack" McKay, who
        would fly the first fourteen X-1B missions.

In 1958, the first flight of the Gulfstream I.

In 1961, the Navy barge Compromise, carrying first Saturn
        booster, stuck in the mud in the Indian River just
        south of Cape Canaveral. Released several hours
        later, the Saturn was delayed only 24 hours in its
        2,200-mile journey from Huntsville.

In 1991, the first NASA flight of the SR-71 is carried out
        by research pilots Steve Ishmael and Rogers Smith.
        The aircraft was NASA 831, a "B" model that was used
        as Dryden's SR-71 training and proficiency aircraft
        in preparation for research flights.

In 2001, the FAI received a record claim notification in the
        Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) class, for the altitude
        reached by the HELIOS remotely piloted wing. The
        performance claimed is 29'413 meters, and will be
        ratified if appropriate after FAI has received the
        record documentation."

        "The remotely piloted wing took off from the U.S.
        Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on the Hawaiian
        island of Kauai at 8:48 a.m. local time. Flying at about
        25 miles an hour, the aircraft stayed aloft almost 17
        hours and reached its highest altitude at 4:08 p.m.
        local time and landed at 1:43 a.m. Tuesday local time."

                   August 15

                    V-J Day

In 1914, the Panama Canal was opened to traffic.

In 1917, the Bureau of Construction and Repair authorized
        the Curtiss Company to paint the wings of naval
        aircraft with "English Khaki Gray Enamel" and all
        aircraft manufacturers to use either opaque yellow
        or clear varnish on floats and hulls.

In 1924, in the first use of rigid airships with the fleet,
        Shenandoah (ZR-1) departed Lakehurst to take part in
        a Scouting Fleet problem 300 miles at sea. She
        discovered the "enemy" fleet but heavy rains forced
        her early retirement to base where she arrived
        17 August after 40 hours in the air.

In 1927, Lt. B.J. Connell and Lt. H.C. Rodd, flying a PN-10
        patrol plane equipped with two Packard engines out
        of San Diego, broke three FAI Class C-2 world
        records for seaplanes. The flight took them
        1,569 miles in 20 hours and 45 minutes.

In 1935, sadly, on this day we lost Wiley Post and Will
        Rogers. It's also the date of the death of Macbeth
        (in 1057).

In 1939, "The Wizard Of Oz" motion picture opened at
        Grauman's Chinese Theater in Hollywood.

In 1945, V-J Day (which is a News or Press term not a
        military term) is the date that the Japanese
        Emperor's surrender message was broadcast.  It is
        also the date the British (UK) use as the date of
        the end of World War II.

In 1946, an Instrument Flight Standardization Board was
        established at NAS Anacostia under the operational
        control of the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
        (Air), for the purpose of determining the means by
        which the instrument flight proficiency of pilots
        could be improved.

In 1951, the Douglas Skyrocket D-558-2, the Navy's sonic
        research plane, piloted by William B. Bridgeman,
        reached 79,494 feet over Muroc, Calif., the highest
        altitude achieved by man to that date.

In 1957, General Nathan F. Twining became the first USAF
        Chairman of the joint Chiefs of Staff.

In 1958, the first Boeing 707 was delivered to Pan American
        Airlines. It entered service in October on a
        transatlantic route.

In 1958, Dr. T. Keith Glennan confirmed by the Senate as
        Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space

In 1958, the Federal Aviation Agency created with passage by
        Congress of the Federal Aviation Act.

In 1960, two pilots were sealed in a "space cabin" for
        17-day simulated flight to the moon, at SAM, Brooks
        AFB, Texas.

In 1961, East German workers began building the Berlin Wall.

In 1964, the President announced the existance of a program
        to develop a counterinsurgency (COIN) airplane.  The
        Navy Department selected North American Aviation as
        the contractor.  This became the OV-10 Bronco.

In 1979, Francis Ford Coppola's "Apocalypse Now" premiered
        in New York, Los Angeles and Toronto movie theaters.

In 2001, the remotely piloted wing (HELIOS) took off from
         the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on
         the Hawaiian island of Kauai at 8:48 a.m. local time.
         Flying at about 25 miles an hour, the aircraft stayed
         aloft almost 17 hours and reached its highest altitude
         at 4:08 p.m. local time and landed at 1:43 a.m.
         Tuesday local time.

         The FAI has received a record claim notification in
         the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) class, for the
         altitude reached by the HELIOS remotely piloted wing.
         The performance claimed is 29'413 meters, and will be
         ratified if appropriate after FAI has received the
         record documentation."

                   August 16

Pierre de Fermat: born August 16, 1601
        Mathematician, called the founder of the modern
        theory of numbers. Together with Rene DesCartes,
        Fermat was one of the two leading mathematicians of
        the first half of the 17th century.

In 1777, Bennington Battle Day.  The day that General John
        Stark accompanied by Col. Seth Warner (of the Green
        Mtn. Boys) defeated the Brits near Bennington, VT
        and prevented them from gaining needed supplies. The
        victory also provided much encouragment for the
        Colonials and was a catalyst for involving the
        French in the War for Independence.  It is a state
        holiday. For Vermonters Bennington Battle Day marks
        the end of summer.  From this time on, although the
        days may be warm or hot, the nights begin to cool down
        dramatically marking the end of the tomato and sweet
        corn ripening.  Those latter two like hot nights to ripen.

In 1829, the original siamese twins, Chang and Eng Bunker,
        arrived in Boston aboard the ship Sachem to be
        exhibited to the Western world.

Hal Foster: born August 16, 1892
        Comic Strip Cartoonist, Tarzan, Prince Valiant

Otto Messner: Born August 16, 1892
        Comic Strip Cartoonist, Felix the Cat

In 1909, a Bureau of Equipment request for authority to
        advertise for the construction of "two heavier than
        air flying machines" was disapproved by the Acting
        Secretary of the Navy with the comment: "The
        Department does not consider that the development of
        an aeroplane has progressed sufficiently at this
        time for use in the Navy."

In 1934, Cecil B. DeMille's "Cleopatra" starring Claudette
        Colbert premiered at the Paramount.

In 1941, an Ercoupe impelled by 6 powder rockets of 50
        pounds thrust each, piloted by Lt. Homer A. Boushey,
        first flew. Not sure this date is correct. Several
        sources claim this first flight could be August 12.
        See entries on August 12 and August 23.

        Additional info on Boushey: "He showed
        that he had the 'right stuff' when he brought in a
        Douglas 0-46, with both ailerons blown away, the main
        wing spar buckled, and his observer/navigator
        parachuted to safety, because he thought study of
        the plane could provide clues to a string of
        unexplained fatal O-46 crashes. He was awarded the
        Distinguished Flying Cross, and was allowed to
        complete his advanced studies in aeronautical
        engineering at Stanford.

        Boushey then joined the research Aircraft
        Laboratory at Wright Field in Dayton and
        initiated a long-continued correspondence
        with Dr. Goddard. He traveled often to Roswell
        New Mexico, where Goddard's knowledge of
        theory, Theodore von Karman's development
        of solid fuel rockets, and Boushey's
        practical experience as an engineer and
        pilot were put to the test on August 23, 1941
        in a modified, propeller-less Ercoupe,
        equipped with twelve small rockets. Both
        the ascent and return to earth were short
        and steep, but the flight was successful.
        It led directly to the use of jet- and
        rocket-assisted flight and is depicted
        in the permanent collection of the National
        Aerospace Museum in Washington, D.C.

        Another Boushey story:

        The tests were highly successful: three
        solid-propellant rockets were strapped
        under each wing of the airplane, and
        the Ercoupe took off in about half the
        length of runway it normally used.

        On August 16, 1941, Boushey made the
        first take-off of the Ercoupe with six
        JATOs firing. Boushey ignited the blend
        of perchlorate, asphalt, and special
        oils with an instrument panel switch,
        and in a blinding flash of light and
        dense smoke, launched himself in only
        300 feet and 7.5 seconds instead of the
        Ercoupe's usual 581 feet and 13.1 seconds!

        At the end of the tests, Boushey recalls,
        "von Karman said, 'Just for history, let's
        unscrew the propeller and be the first to
        fly an airplane with rocket power alone.' "
        The first American manned flight of an
        aircraft propelled by rocket thrust alone
        was made by Boushey on August 23, 1941.
        The propeller of the Ercoupe was removed,
        and to be sure of getting off the ground,
        they doubled the number of rockets and
        started the airplane rolling by towing it
        with a rope attached to a truck. Boushey
        left the cockpit canopy open and held the
        end of the rope in one hand. Thus was born
        the little-known and short-lived concept
        of Rocket-'n'-Rope-Assist. "I guess I must
        have gotten 30 or 40 miles an hour before
        the tension got too great for me to hold
        onto," Boushey said. "Then we lit the
        rockets - we put 12 on instead of six - and
        it took off in a hurry."

In 1942, Air Force planes see action in North Africa
        for the first time bombing German military

In 1944, the US loses the first B-17 to a Messerschmitt
        163Bs rocket-propelled fighter while on a bombing
        mission over Leipzig.

In 1944 "Ken" Dahlberg (St. Paul, MN) became an "Ace" when
        he downed three (3) Fw 190s.  It is significant to
        note that the did this flying an older P-51B
        (Marking FT-P) -- 353rd FS of the 354th FG.

        In all, Ken Dahlberg was credited with 8 Fw 190s
        and 6 Bf 109s. He also (almost) made Double Ace
        in-a-day on 12 Dec 44 when he got credit for four
        "190" kills and one "190" damaged.

        Kenny, after the war and the MN ANG, proceeded to
        form/run the "Dalhberg Hearing Aid Co.".

In 1954, Time Inc's "Sports Illustrated" magazine published
        its first issue.

In 1960, Captain Joseph W. Kittinger made the longest
        delayed parachute jump on record when he bailed out
        of a ballon at 102,800 feet and dropped 84,700 feet
        (31,330 m) or 16 miles before opening his parachute
        over New Mexico.

In 1969, a new world speed record was set by Darryl Greenamyer
        flying a Grumman F8F-2 Bearcat (FAI Ratified) at
        769.23 km/h. The previous record was 755.138 km/h
        set by Fritz Wendel in a Messerschmitt Bf 109R
        (also known as a Me 209) in 1939.

        The current FAI Speed over a straight 3 km course
        at restricted altitude is:  
        850.24 km/h  ~ 528.329 mph 
        Date of flight: 21 August 1989 
        Pilot: [b]Lyle SHELTON (USA)
        Course/place: Las Vegas, NM (USA) 
        Aircraft: Grumman F8F "Bearcat" (1 R-3350, 3800 hp) 
        Registered 'N7771'

In 1973, the F-14's quick reaction, dogfight capability was
        demonstrated at the Pacific Missile Range when, from
        a distance of less than a mile, the aircraft shot
        down a maneuvering QT-33 target drone with a Sparrow
        III missile.

                    August 17

Thomas Hodgkin: born August 17, 1798
        English physician who described (in 1832) the
        malignant disease of lymph tissue that bears his

In 1807, Robert Fulton's North River Steam Boat (popularly
        known as the Clermont) began chugging its way up New
        York's Hudson River on its successful round-trip
        from New York City to Albany 150 miles apart in 32

In 1903, a donation of a million dollars was made to
        Columbia University by Joseph Pulitzer, starting the
        Pulitzer Prizes in his name.

In 1917, Field Marshal Jan Christian Smuts, Chairman of a
        Sub-committee on Imperial Defence, submitted classic
        proposal for creation of an autonomous air force in
        the British military structure.

In 1918, the Army Martin MB-1 made its first flight with
        pilot T.E. Springer.  As the first standard bomber
        of the Air Service, it didn't see combat but was
        later modified for use by the Post Office

(Francis) Gary Powers: born August 17, 1929
        Test Pilot; Korean War Veteran; worked for the CIA
        in the 1960's; subsequently found employment as a
        helicopter pilot for TV station KNBC in Los

In 1939, the first flight of DB-7 production prototype. The
         DB-7 was a private venture (personlichentwurfwerke)
         for the French Government. When France fell in
         1940, undelivered aircraft outstanding from French
         contracts were taken over by the British
         Government and given the name "Boston".  It was
         also produced by the U.S. as the A-20
         (Angreifen-20) "Havoc".  More than 7,000 of these
         aircraft were produced in WW-II by the U.S.
         and U.K.

In 1942, the first AAF bomber mission over western Europe
        took place. Twelve B-17E's of the 97th Bomb Group,
        flying from Grafton-Underwood attacked the
        locomotive-depot works at Rouen, France. The 97th
        was heavily escorted by Spitfire IX's of the R.A.F.

        Among the Bombers of the 97th that day were: "Baby
        Doll", "Peggy D", "Big Stuff", "Butcher Shop",
        "Yankee Doodle", "Berlin Sleeper",  "Johnny Reb",
        "Alabama Exterminator", and "Birmingham Blitzkrieg".
        The 97th bombed from 23,000 ft with a load of 36,900
        lbs dropped. No aircraft were lost.

        The Mission Commander was Colonel Frank Armstrong
        (riding in the co-pilot seat). The Airplane Commander
        was (then) Major Paul Tibbets with a "pickup" crew
        on "Butcher Shop" with Armstrong in the right seat. 
        Riding Observer / (Shotgun) was Brig. Gen. Ira C.
        Eaker in the second formation aboard "Yankee
        Doodle" but listed as leader by military tradition.
        They departed the IP at 1739-hrs and dropped at

In 1943, the Messerchmitt Factory at Regensburg was attacked
        (bomb run starting at 1148-hrs and turn from target
        at 1207-hrs) by 127 B-17s of the 4th Heavy
        Bomardment Wing. [299 tons delivered].

        On the same day, the Ball-bearing Works at
        Schweinfurt was attacked (bomb run starting at
        1459-hrs and turn from target at 1511-hrs) by
        183 B-17's of the 1st Heavy Bombardment Wing.
        [424 tons delivered].

        In all, (the two raids) cost the USAAF: 60 B-17s
        missing; four damaged beyond repair and 168 light
        to moderately damaged. Personnel costs: 552-missing;
        seven killed; and, 21 wounded.

In 1946, Sergeant Lambert of Wright Field, Ohio, became the
        first person in the US to be ejected from an
        airplane by means of emergency escape equipment.  He
        ejected from a P-61 travelling at 302 mph at an
        altitude of 7,800 feet.

In 1994, The Spirit of California, B-2A 88-0330, the second
        operational B-2, arrived at Whiteman.

                    August 18

In 1587, Virginia Dare became the first child of English
        parents to be born on American soil, on what is now
        Roanoke Island, North Carolina. Virginia Dare was
        born to Ellinor and Ananias Dare. She was given the
        name Virginia because she was the first Christian
        born in Virginia.
In 1817, Gloucester, Massachussetts, newspapers carried
        accounts of a wild sea serpent seen offshore. They
        claimed it was 3 feet in diameter and 100 feet long.

Pietro Belluschi: born August 18, 1899
        Architect who designed the Pan-Am building

In 1910, Lt. Benjamin D. "Benny" Foulois installed the first
        three wheel landing gear on the Wright Signal Corps
        #1.  It was designed by Oliver G. Simmons.

Lilya Litvyak:  born August 18, 1921
        born in Moscow. She was regarded as a "stunningly
        beautiful woman", which suited the russian
        propagandaministerium well, as they trained her to
        be a fighter pilot.
        On her plane, a Yak-1, she painted a white lily on
        each of the sides. This was often mistaken for a
        rose, hence her nickname; "The white rose of
        Stalingrad".  This "white rose" became famous among
        the Germans and a lot of pilots rather fled the
        scene than fighting her.

        Lilya was injured three times. All three times
        during the spring and summer of 1943. After she got
        back from her first injury, her squadron had been
        renamed to the 73rd Guard IAP, due to their
        exploits in battle. The 16th and 18th she was
        injured yet again. On the 18th, her friend Katya
        Budanova, was killed in combat.
        A monument was raised in her memory, in the town of
        Krasy Luch with twelve gold stars. One for each
        enemy plane she had shot down. Lilya completed
        168 missions, shot down twelve planes with another
        three shared. She was only 22 years old when she
        died. In 1979 they found her plane and body near
        the town of Dmitriyevka. Ten years later the body
        was recovered for an official burial and may 5 1990
        she was posthomously awarded; "Hero of the Soviet
        Union", by, then primeminister, Mikhail Gorbachov.

In 1922, the American Gas Accumulator (AGA) beacon began
        operations at NAS Hampton Roads, with 6,000
        candlepower, 18 flashes per minute and an optical
        range of 20 miles horizontally.

In 1926, a contract was issued to the Aircraft Development
        Corp, Detroit, for a metal clad airship designated
        ZMC-2.  The 'metal clad' would be stressed aluminum

In 1927, Lt. B.J. Connell and Lt. H.C. Rodd, flying out of
        San Diego a PN-10 Flying Boat carried 7,726 lbs to
        an altitude of 2,000 meters to break the FAI Class
        C-2 world record for the greatest payload carried
        to that altitude by a seaplane.

In 1932, Auguste Piccard and Max Cosyns attained an altitude
        of 53,152 feet on their second stratosphere balloon
        flight, landing on a glacier in the Alps.

In 1957, Paul E. Bikle established a world glider record of
        55.02 mph of a 300 km triangular course, in a
        Schweizer SGS 123E sailplane at El Mirage,

In 2003, the newly rebuilt "Enola Gay" was unveiled to
        the public today in Washington, DC.

                    August 19

John Flamsted: born August 19, 1646
        Astronomer, English, the first astronomer of England

Edward John Dent:  born August 19, 1790
        Inventor, English, noted for his highly accurate
        clocks and chronometers.

Charles E. Hires: born August 19, 1851
        Manufacturer, Inventor, root beer; Hires co.

Bernard M. Baruch: born August 19, 1870
        NYC financier, Wall St speculator, advisor to
        Presidents Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt
        and Harry Truman; the man who first coined the
        phrase "The Cold War", and the person whom the
        business college of the City University of NY is
        named after.

Orville Wright: born August 19, 1871
        Inventor, Aviator, partnered with brother
        Wilbur; pioneer in aviation

Philo T. Farnsworth: born August 19, 1906
        Inventor, co-inventer of the electronic television
        set; Philco TV manufacturing was named after him

In 1918, NAS Halifax, Nova Scotia, the first of two
        established in Canada, was placed in operating
        status to conduct patrols over the northern
        approaches to the Atlantic coast,Lieutenant R. E.
        Byrd commanding.

In 1918, in trial runs observed by Naval Constructors H. C.
        Richardson and C. N. Liqued, the Kirkham 18-T
        experimental triplane fighter, built by the Curtiss
        Company, achieved speeds of 161, 162, and 158 miles
        per hour, over a measured course.

Eugene Wesley "Gene" Roddenberry: 1921
        TV/Movie Producer, Screen/Scriptwriter, decorated
        WWII bomber pilot; creator of Star Trek & Next
        Generation; Majel Barrett's hubby

In 1932, the Marx Brothers' movie "Horse Feathers" was
        released in the movie theaters in USA.

In 1936, Lieutenant B. L. Braun, pilot and ACOM W. B.
        Marvelle completed test bombing against the
        submarine R-8 off the Virginia Capes. Flying a T4M-1
        at an altitude of 2,500 feet, they dropped twelve
        100-pound bombs in a 2-day period and obtained four
        near-misses with a cumulative effect which caused
        the submarine to sink.

In 1938, this day was proclaimed National Aviation Day
        in honor of the birthday of Orville Wright, and has
        been celebrated every year since.

In 1941, President Roosevelt announced that Pan American
        Airways would establish a ferry service to fly
        American aircraft to the RAF in the Middle East.

In 1958, Dr. T. Keith Glennan sworn in as Administrator, and
        Dr. Hugh L. Dryden as Deputy Administrator, of the
        National Aeronautics and Space Administration; 40
        days later, as of October 1, 1958, NASA was declared
        to be ready to function.

In 1960, Sputnik 5, carrying two dogs, was launched into
        space and was later retrieved as the first recovery
        of living organisms from space.

In 1960, the second time a manmade object was recovered
        intact from earth orbit and the first midair
        recovery of an object from space, when USAF C-119
        transport snared the 300-pound capsule of DISCOVERER
        XIV at 10,000 feet, Capt. H. F. Mitchell (USAF)as
        pilot of the C-119.

                    August 20

Jons Jakob Berzelius: born August 20, 1779
        Swedish chemist, noted for his determination of
        atomic weights and the development of modern
        chemical symbols.

H. P. Lovecraft: born August 20, 1890
        Sci-fi Writer; Born in Providence, R.I.; rumor has
        it his parents died insane; at the age of 16, he
        was writing an astronomy column for the Providence

In 1910, Army Lt. Jacob E. Fickel fires a .30 caliber
        Springfield rifle at the ground while flying as a
        passenger in a Curtiss biplane over Sheepshead Bay,
        New York.  This is the first time a military firearm
        was discharged from an airplane.

In 1929, the Graf Zeppelin (LZ-127) returned to Lakehurst
        completing the first airship flight around the
        Earth, flying eastward.

In 1929, Lieutenant A. W. Gorton, flying a specially
        equipped UO-1, made several successful hook-ons the
        Trapeze of Los Angeles (ZR-3) over NAS Lakehurst.
        Earlier attempts by the same pilot on 3 July were
        foiled when the hook failed to operate after making
        contact with the trapeze.

In 1934, Henry H. "Hap" Arnold left Bolling Field July 19,
        1934, for a mass flight of 4,000 miles to Fairbanks,
        Alaska. The flight was designed to demonstrate the
        capabilities of the Air Corps' long-range bombers.
        In addition, the crew accomplished critical mapping
        and survey work upon which future plans for the
        defense of Alaska were to be based. After completing
        the entire mission on schedule, they retumed to
        Bolling on August 20 and were greeted by Secretary
        of War George H. Dern and Major General Benjamin D.
        Foulois, Chief of the Army Air Corps.

In 1940, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill paid
        tribute to the Royal Air Force in the Battle of
        Britian, saying "Never in the field of human
        conflict was so much owed by so many to so few."

In 1940, Smith J. DeFrance was appointed Engineer-in-Charge
        of the NACA Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, Moffett
        Field, California.

In 1942, the Twelfth Air Force was activated at Bolling
        Field on August 20, 1942, and deployed to England
        the following month under the command of Brigadier
        General James H. Doolittle in preparation for the
        invasion of North Africa in November.

In 1944, the nonrigid airship K-111, under command of
        Lieutenant Commander F. N. Klein, operating in
        conjunction with the Escort Carrier Makassar Strait
        off San Diego, demonstrated the feasibility of
        refueling and replenishing airships from aircraft
        carriers. In this operation of 72.5 hours duration,
        the airship's crew was relieved every 12 hours and
        its engines were operated continuously. In one
        evolution, the airship remained on deck for 32

In 1947, Commander Turner Caldwell in a Douglas D-558-I (#1)
        Sky Streak powered by a General Electric TG-180
        turbojet, set an aircraft speed record of 640.7 mph,
        over the three kilometer course at Muroc,
        California. Five days later Maj. Marion Carl, USMC,
        added another 10 mph flying D-558-I (No. 2).

In 1953, the longest non-stop flight by single engined jet
        fighters was made by 17 USAF F-84G Thunderjets
        flying from Turner AFB, Albany, Georgia to Lakenheath,
        England, a distance of 4,485 miles.

        WWII ace Dave Schilling flew lead on this mission.
        On that operation they tested the "new" celestial
        navigation system and accomplished the flight
        (without) the use of Radio Nav Aids.

        For reference: Colonel David (Dave) Schilling,
        after all his aerial exploits and exposure to danger,
        died in an automobile accident in Suffolk, England on
        14 August 1956. Schilling had 22.5 kills in WWII
        flying the P-47 and was a member of the famous 56th
        Fighter Group.

In 1955, Col. Horace A. Hanes established a supersonic speed
        record for straightaway flight at 822.135 mph in a
        F-100 Super Sabre, at Edwards AFB.

In 1963, the first flight of the British Aerospace BAC One
        Eleven (-200).

In 1977, Voyager 2 was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida
        aboard a Titan - Centaur rocket. It was originally
        designed, along with its sister ship Voyager 1, to
        explore Saturn, Saturn's rings, Jupiter and the
        larger moons of the two planets. During the mission,
        Neptune and Uranus were added to the list.
        The Voyager mission was designed to take advantage of
        a rare geometric arrangement of the outer planets.
        The layout of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
        which occurs every 175 years, allows a spacecraft
        on a particular flight path to swing from one planet
        to the next without the need for large onboard propulsion

        Voyager 2 arrived at Jupiter on July 9, 1979 and
        Saturn on August 25, 1981. It encountered Uranus
        on January 24, 1986 and Neptune on August 25, 1989.

        Voyager 1, believed to be the most distant man made
        object in the cosmos reached 100 astronomical units
        from the sun on August 15, 2006.

In 2001, Fairchild Dornier won a contract to convert two
        former German air force Alpha Jets to civil standards
        for the international Red Bull energy drink aircraft
        team, The Flying Bulls. The contract value was not

        The two Alpha Jets will join the Flying Bulls fleet
        consisting of a B-25 Mitchell bomber, an F4U-4
        Corsair, a Douglas DC-6B, a Cessna CE 208 Caravan, a
        Grumman G-44 Widgeon, and a T-28B Trojan. The Alpha
        Jets will be delivered in early 2002.

        Additional note, on March 6th and 14th, 2002, two
        Alpha Jets completed their virgin flights and were
        transferred from Fuerstenfeldbruck to the
        production airport of the Fairchild-Dornier Company
        in Oberpfaffenhofen / Munich. Both jets were presented
        to the public on May 8, 2002 in the context of the
        International Aerospace Exhibition in Berlin.

                    August 21

Baron Augustin-Louis Cauchy: born August 21, 1789
        French mathematician, pioneered in analysis and the
        theory of substitution groups.

In 1878, a group of 100 lawyers, judges and law professors
        from 21 states founded the American Bar Association
        at the Saratoga, New York, town hall.

Claude Grahame-White: born August 21, 1879
        First Englishman to be granted a British Certificate
        of Proficiency in Aviation.  Founded the British
        flying school at Pau, France.  Helped to establish
        the London Aerodrome at Hendon.  Founded his own
        company to build aircraft.

Isadore "I." "Friz" Freleng: 1906
        Animator, created Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig,
        Speedy Gonzales, Sylvester the Cat, Tweety Bird,
        Yosemite Sam (to whom he admitted more than a
        passing resemblance)and the Pink Panther. He won
        five Academy Awards.  Was head animator for Warner
        Brothers Studio.

In 1914, Lt. Commander H.C. Mustin, Lt. P.N.L. Bellinger and
        1st Lt. B.L. Smith arrived in Paris from North
        Carolina for a two day tour of aircraft factories
        and aerodromes in the immediate area.  This was the
        first use of naval aviators as observers in foreign

In 1922, Lawrence Sperry dropped landing wheels from a plane
        in flight and landed it on a skid device at
        Farmingdale, Long Island.

In 1947, W. Stuart Symington was named the first Secretary
        of the Air Force.

In 1953, flying a Douglas D-558-II Skyrocket (#2) which had
        been launched from a B-29 Superfortress at an
        altitude of 34,000 feet, Lt. Colonel Marion E. Carl
        set an altitude record of 83,235 feet at Edwards Air
        Force Base, California.

In 1956, a speed record for US combat aircraft was set by
        Commander R.W. Winslow flying a F8U-1 Crusader over
        the Mojave Desert.
        He reached 1,015 mph capturing the Thompson Trophy.
        This production model carrier fighter, equipped
        during its record performance with full armament of
        20 mm cannon and dummy ammunition, was the first
        operationally equipped jet plane in history to fly
        faster than 1,000 m.p.h.

In 1961, a DC-8 was flown beyond mach 1 in an experimental
        flight by Douglas Aircraft.

In 1965, the US launched Gemini 5 with astronauts Cooper and
        Conrad aboard for an eight day flight.

In 1970, the first flight of the prototype Gulfstream
        American AA5A Cheetah / AA5B Tiger. In 1972, Grumman
        would purchase American Aviation.

                    August 22

In 1847, Mormon Tabernacle Choir organized.

In 1909, the first International Aviation Meeting in the
        world opened and lasted until 29th August 1909. 
        Thirty eight aeroplanes were entered to participate,
        although only about a dozen managed to leave the ground;
        the meeting also attracted aviators and aeroplane
        designers from all over Europe and did much to arouse
        widespread public interest in flying.

Dr. Denton Arthur Cooley: born August 22, 1920
        Performed the first artifical heart transplant

In 1923, the six engine Barling bomber, underwent its first
        tests at McCook Field, Lt. H.R. Harris as pilot.

        Barling, the bomber designer, worked for Tarrant
        on the Tabor and carried forward several of the
        bad ideas, but not the absolutely fatal weight and
        balance problem.  The Barling could not carry fuel
        AND bombs.  Its range was 170 miles, i.e., an action
        radius of 85 miles. Of course, the Tabor flew only
        once, and only for a few seconds.

        B-29: Span: 141 ft. 3 in., Length: 99 ft. 0 in.,
              Height: 27 ft. 9 in., Weight: 133,500 lbs. max.

        Tarrant Tabor (Barling Bomber): 65 feet long, 28 feet
              high, and had a wingspan of 120 feet

General H. Norman Schwarzkopf: born August 22, 1934
        Born in Trenton, NJ. Attained rank of General
        in 1978.  Appointed head of US Central Command
        in 1988.

In 1938, the Civil Aeronautics Act became effective,
        coordinating all nonmilitary aviation under the
        Civil Aeronautics Authority.

Carl Yastrzemski: born August 22, 1939
        Hall of Fame baseball player; Boston Red Sox

In 1947, Dr. Hugh L. Dryden was appointed Director of
        Aeronautical Research of the NACA, replacing Dr.
        George W. Lewis.

In 1951, Air Force flight #1 ofthe X-1D was attempted with
        Lt. Col. Frank Everest.  The X-1D suffered a low
        order explosion while being pressurized to jettison
        its fuel load, was dropped from the B-50 and
        exploded on impact with the desert.  Everest was OK
        because he managed to climb into the bomb bay of the
        B-50 before the X-1D was released.

In 1955, Navy VX-3 began operational evaluation of the
        mirror landing system installed on the Bennington. 
        Commander R.G. Dose, flying an FJ-3 Fury, made the
        first landing.  Two days later, Lt. Commander H.C.
        McKnight made the first night landing in an F9F-8
        Cougar.  This testing led to the decision to install
        the mirror system on aircraft carriers and at
        certain shore stations.

In 1956, Lt. Commander Virgil Solomon set down the Marianas
        Mars on waters off NAS Alameda after a flight from
        Honolulu and completed the last scheduled passenger
        service for Mars aircraft.

In 1963, an unofficial altitude record of 354,200 feet was
        set by Joe Walker in the 22nd flight of the North
        American X-15 #3. This joint program by NASA, the
        Air Force and the Navy.

In 1974, the first flight of the Shorts model 330

If I haven't mentioned this before, it was August 1977 that
        Radio Shack announced the TRS-80.  Within one month,
        10,000 had been sold despite projections of 3,000.


                    August 23

William Henry Eccles: born August 23, 1875
        British physicist, pioneered in the development of
        radio communication.

General Jonathan M. Wainwright: born August 23, 1883
        General who defended the Bataan Peninsula in WW-II

Howard D. Johnson: born August 23, 1896
        Founded restaraunt/hotel chain

In 1911, the officers on duty at Hammondsport, NY and
        Dayton, Ohio were ordered to report for duty at the
        Engineering Experiment Station, Naval Academy.  They
        were to attend the aviation school being set up on
        Greenbury Point, Annapolis.

In 1917, the Fokker Dr1 came into service. It was made famous
        by Manfred von Richtofen (Red Baron) and some claim
        it was the most famous aircraft of WW I.

In 1919, a general order directed that during dirigible
        flights, parachutes be carried for each person on

In 1929, the first cirumnavigation of the globe by "airship"
        [Graf-Zeppelin] was completed on this date at
        Lakehurst, New Jersey.  It began its flight from
        Lakehurst on 8 August 29.   Distance 21,150 miles
        21-days, 5-hours 31- minutes.  However, actual time
        "in the air" was only 12-days, 12-hours, 40-minutes.

In 1929, the Russian plane, Land of the Soviets, began a
        goodwill tour of the United States.  Its route would
        be Moscow to Seattle, then on to New York, covering
        13,300 miles in 142 flight hours. The tour ended on
        October 31.

In 1937, the first wholly automatic landings were made at
        Wright Field by Captain Carl J. Crane, inventor of
        the system; Captain George Hollman, pilot and
        Raymond K. Stout, project engineer.

In 1938, a contract was issued to Martin for the XPB2M-1
        four engined flying boat.  Initially intended as a
        patrol plane, this craft was later converted to the
        PB2M-1R Mars transport and served as a prototype for
        the JRM series of flying boats.

In 1941, an Ercoupe impelled by 12 powder rockets of 50
        pounds thrust each, piloted by Lt. Homer A. Boushey,
        first flew on rocket power alone after an initial
        boost from a towing automobile. This date seems to
        be correct. The sources all claim the removal of the
        propeller and rope tow occured on this date.
        See entries on August 12 and August 16.

        Additional info on Boushey: "He showed
        that he had the 'right stuff' when he brought in a
        Douglas 0-46, with both ailerons blown away, the main
        wing spar buckled, and his observer/navigator
        parachuted to safety, because he thought study of
        the plane could provide clues to a string of
        unexplained fatal O-46 crashes. He was awarded the
        Distinguished Flying Cross, and was allowed to
        complete his advanced studies in aeronautical
        engineering at Stanford.

        Boushey then joined the research Aircraft
        Laboratory at Wright Field in Dayton and
        initiated a long-continued correspondence
        with Dr. Goddard. He traveled often to Roswell
        New Mexico, where Goddard's knowledge of
        theory, Theodore von Karman's development
        of solid fuel rockets, and Boushey's
        practical experience as an engineer and
        pilot were put to the test on August 23, 1941
        in a modified, propeller-less Ercoupe,
        equipped with twelve small rockets. Both
        the ascent and return to earth were short
        and steep, but the flight was successful.
        It led directly to the use of jet- and
        rocket-assisted flight and is depicted
        in the permanent collection of the National
        Aerospace Museum in Washington, D.C.

        Another Boushey story:

        The tests were highly successful: three
        solid-propellant rockets were strapped
        under each wing of the airplane, and
        the Ercoupe took off in about half the
        length of runway it normally used.

        On August 16, 1941, Boushey made the
        first take-off of the Ercoupe with six
        JATOs firing. Boushey ignited the blend
        of perchlorate, asphalt, and special
        oils with an instrument panel switch,
        and in a blinding flash of light and
        dense smoke, launched himself in only
        300 feet and 7.5 seconds instead of the
        Ercoupe's usual 581 feet and 13.1 seconds!

        At the end of the tests, Boushey recalls,
        "von Karman said, 'Just for history, let's
        unscrew the propeller and be the first to
        fly an airplane with rocket power alone.' "
        The first American manned flight of an
        aircraft propelled by rocket thrust alone
        was made by Boushey on August 23, 1941.
        The propeller of the Ercoupe was removed,
        and to be sure of getting off the ground,
        they doubled the number of rockets and
        started the airplane rolling by towing it
        with a rope attached to a truck. Boushey
        left the cockpit canopy open and held the
        end of the rope in one hand. Thus was born
        the little-known and short-lived concept
        of Rocket-'n'-Rope-Assist. "I guess I must
        have gotten 30 or 40 miles an hour before
        the tension got too great for me to hold
        onto," Boushey said. "Then we lit the
        rockets - we put 12 on instead of six - and
        it took off in a hurry."

In 1951, F2H-2 Banshees flown by pilots of VF-172, went
        into action for the first time.

In 1954, the first NACA flight of the X-3 research airplane
        was made by Joseph Walker at Edwards Air Force Base,

In 1954, the first flight of the YC-130, Lockheed's C-130

In 1956, a US Army helicopter, the H-21, made the first
        transcontinental nonstop flight for helicopters.  It
        flew from San Diego, Calif. to Washington, DC, in 31
        hours and 40 minutes.

In 1958, an Act of Congress created the Federal Aviation
        Agency and assigned it broad responsibilities
        involving operation of airways; the regulation of
        air traffic including military; and the
        establishment of airports and missile and rocket
        sites. The Act also provided for military
        participation in performance of the Agency's
        functions, for military deviations from air traffic
        regulations in an emergency, and for appeal to the
        President of disagreements concerning the location
        of military airports.

In 1963, in a joint Weather Bureau-Navy project titled
        Stormfury, a Navy A-3B Skywarrior seeded Hurricane
        Beulah with silver iodide particles in an experiment
        to determine whether the energy patterns of large
        storms could be changed. Although the second day
        seedings appeared to have some effect, results were
        considered too indefinite to draw firm conclusions.

In 1977, Bryan Allen won the Kremer Prize for the first
        human-powered flight as he pedalled the Gossamer
        Condor for at least a mile at Shafter, California. 
        The flight lasted 7 min., 2.7 sec.

In 1990, the first 747-200B, modified into the new Air Force
        One, is delivered to the Air Force and President
        George Bush.

                    August 24

In 79, A.D., the long-dormant Mount Vesuvius erupted burying
        the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in
        volcanic ash.

Joshua Lionel Cowen: born August 24, 1877
        Founder of Lionel Trains; Joshua would say he was born
        in 1880 but records indicate 1877.

William Francis Gibbs: born August 24, 1886
        Architect, Engineer, WWII Naval ships and
        destroyers. Also, when the US government wanted a
        ship that could be converted quickly to a troop
        ship. So, working on a government subsidy, he
        designed and built the SS United States.

In 1907, a helicopter built by the brothers Louis and
        Jacques Breguet along with Professor Charles
        Richet appeared, at a public display to rise
        about two feet and remained in the air for one
        minute.  It was highly unstable and was held steady
        by four assistants to prevent any erratic movement. 
        There are claims that the four were really holding it up.

In 1921, during its fourth trial flight, the British Airship
        R-38 rigid airship (intended to become the US Navy
        ZR-2), built for the Navy by the Short Brothers
        at Shortsdown-Cardington near Bedford, broke into
        two parts and fell into the Humber River at Hull,
        England. It carried to their deaths
        28 British nationals and 16 Americans, including Air
        Commodore E. M. Maitland and Commander L. H.
        Maxfield, the latter the prospective American
        commanding officer.

In 1938, in the first American use of a drone target
        aircraft in anti-aircraft exercises, the Ranger
        fired upon a radio-controlled JH-1 making a
        simulated horizontal bombing attack on the fleet.
        This not only heralded a new departure in anti-
        aircraft practice, but also indicated that
        radio-controlled aircraft could be used as a
        training device in the fleet.

In 1940, the US Army ordered two prototypes and one static
        test model of the new Boeing XB-29. 

Gregory B. Jarvis: born August 24, 1944
        Engineer, Astronaut (STS-51-L)

                    August 25

Samuel Chester Reid: born August 25, 1783
        Naval Officer, proposed the design of the
        present American flag in 1818. Originally, the
        flag was to add a star and a stripe for each new
        state in the United States. Reid proposed
        keeping just 13 stripes for the original
        colonies and adding stars for the new states.

        On April 4, 1818, President Monroe accepted a
        bill based on Reid's proposal.

In 1909, land for the first Signal Corps airfield is leased
        at College Park, Maryland.

In 1912, at the Military Trials at Larkhill on Salisbury
        Lieutenant Wilfred Parke RN descended in a steep
        spiral glide after a three hour qualifying flight in
        an Avro. Accounts varied in detail but all the
        observers agreed the Avro suddenly flipped into a
        violent spin.

        Parke realised that turning "into the spiral" was
        making things worse. He relaxed back pressure and
        booted in full opposite rudder, the Avro came out
        of the spin at an estimated fifty feet.

        Unfortunately there was no official enquiry that
        might have spread details of the recovery, but there
        was an unnofficial debrief at the time. The problem
        was that nobody recognised Wilf's accidental
        demonstration for what it was, and it was thought it
        might have been unique to the Avro. However,
        Geoffrey deHavilland, and F. Short of the Royal
        Aircraft Factory were at the meeting and no doubt
        used the experience for their own investigations
        over the following months.

        Nobody recorded what the observer who flew with
        Parke, Lieutenant Le Breton, had to say.

Walt Kelly: born August 25, 1913
        Comic Strip Cartoonist, Pogo

In 1914, Stephen Banic, a coal miner in Greenville, PA, is
        issued a patent for a workable parachute design.

In 1916, the National Park Service was established within
        the Department of the Interior.

In 1917, NC flying boat development was initiated by Chief
        Constructor D. W. Taylor in a memo which outlined
        certain general requirements of an airplane needed
        in war and directed his staff to investigate the
        subject further. In part, Taylor stated: "The
        'United States [Liberty] Motor' gives good promise
        of being a success, and if we can push ahead on the
        airplane end, it seems to me the submarine menace
        could be abated, even if not destroyed, from the
        air. The ideal solution would be big flying boats or
        the equivalent, that would be able to fly across the
        Atlantic to avoid difficulties of delivery, etc."

        Also on this day, the 12-cylinder Liberty motor
        passed a 50-hour test with a power output of 301 to
        320 horsepower, preliminary to being ordered into
        mass production.

In 1919, the first daily commercial air service began with
        flights between London and Paris.  It used British
        Airco DH-4a's.

In 1926, a JN training plane used a large parachute to float
        deadstick down to a rough landing (with some damage)
        at San Diego NAS.

In 1927, the first flight of the Messerschmitt M-19. It was
        claimed that this was the first aircraft that was
        able to fly with a large load factor.

        Authoritative evaluation of the M 19 showed that its
        (utility) load capacity was 132-lbs. It's empty weight
        of 309-lbs plus load capacity (EW + LC = NG) equalled
        Nominal Gross Wt of 441-lbs.

        This is a load factor of 0.7. With its 30-hp Bristol
        Cherub engine it was determined that it could fly
        with a load factor of about 0.82 without any real
        danger or difficulty. This equalled an additional
        load of about 52-lbs or a Gross-Wt of about 493-lbs.

Sean Connery: born August 25, 1930

In 1937, the first flight of the Sukhoi Su-2

In 1940, the first parachute wedding takes place between
        Arno Rudolphi and Ann Hayward at the World's Fair
        amusement area in New York City.

In 1945, Colonel Clay Tice is the first American to set foot
        on Japanese soil following the WW-II cease fire. Clay
        landed to insure the safety of a pilot who had
        inadvertently dropped a 300 gallon drop tank, full of
        fuel, and then ran out of gas on a 5+30 hours mission.

In 1947, Major Marion E. Carl, USMC, flying the Douglas
        Skystreak D-558-1, set a new world's speed record of
        650.796 m.p.h. over the 3-kilometer course at Muroc,

In 1949, Major Frank Everest is the first to use the partial
        pressure suit.  When X-1 (#1) suffered a canopy
        crack and pressurization loss at approximately
        69,000 feet resulting in the first deployment of the
        high-altitude pressure suit being worn by Everest.
        He made a safe descent and landing.

In 1958, Commander Forrest S. Petersen made his first flight
        in the X-15. Peterson was the Navy's research pilot
        in the NASA X-15 program. Between this date and 30
        January 1962, he made five X-15 flights and logged
        about forty minutes.
In 1959, during suitability trials on board Independence an
        A3D piloted by Lieutenant Commander Ed Decker took
        off at a gross weight of 84,000 pounds--the heaviest
        aircraft ever to take off from a carrier.

In 1962, the first U-2 flight over the North Pole; USAF
        Pilot: Don Webster flew 3,121 miles in 8 hrs, 40
In 1995, the first flight of the Airbus A-319.

                    August 26

Joseph Michel Montgolfier: born August 26, 1740
        French balloonist; 1st practical hot air balloon
        with brother Jacques

Dr. Lee de Forest: born August 26, 1873
        "Father of Radio"; developed electron tube,
        photoelectric, radar electronics, audion tube; 300

        ...and who said "To place a man in a multi-stage
        rocket and project him into the controlling
        gravitational field of the moon where the passengers
        can make scientific observations, perhaps land alive,
        and then return to earth--all that constitutes a wild
        dream worthy of Jules Verne. I am bold enough to say
        that such a man-made voyage will never occur regardless
        of all future advances" in 1957.

In 1883, the island volcano Krakatoa erupted.

Jerome Hunsaker: born August 26, 1886
        Aeronautical engineer; made major innovations in the
        design of lighter-than-air ships, seaplanes, and
        carrier-based aircraft.

Maxwell Davenport Taylor: born August 26, 1901
        Commander of the 101st Airborne in WW-II

        In 1951, Taylor became a temporary lieutenant general
        and permanent major general. In 1953, he was promoted
        to temporary general and commanded Eighth Army in the
        final operations of the Korean War.

Dr. Albert Bruce Sabin: born August 26, 1906
        Developer of the oral polio vaccine

In 1914, the first air battle of World War I on the eastern
        front takes place.  Staff Captain Petr Nikolaevich
        Nesterov records the first aerial ramming in combat.

In 1942, Lt Danny Roberts records the first air victory for
        the 80th Fighter Squadron. Flying a P-39, he engaged
        in action in the Buna area.In all, six victories
        were recorded by the 80th that day.

In 1950, X-1 #1 was formally retired. It flew for the last
        time on May 12, 1950. During its career, it made
        eighty-three flights with ten different pilots. It
        was formally retired on August 26, 1950 and
        currently hangs in the Smithsonian Air and Space
        Museum in Washington D.C.

In 1953, the movie "The War of the Worlds" was released in
        the movie theaters in USA.

In 1954, Major Arthur "Kit" Murray flew the Bell X-1A to
        record 90,443 feet at Edwards AFB.

In 1958, General Thomas D. White wrote James Doolittle,
        Chairman NACA, "There was regret at the passing of
        an agency that for 43 years has set the world's
        standard in aeronautical research. There has always
        been for us in the Air Force, the knowledge that
        NACA was ready to help in any aeodynamic trouble".

In 1960, construction began on the world's largest radar
        installation at Arecibo, Puerto Rico.  It would be
        capable of bouncing signals off Venus, Mars and
        Jupiter.  It's prime contractor was Cornell
        University under the direction of ARPA and the

In 1961, a Northrop T-38 Talon was flown to a world speed
        record for women at Edwards Air Force Base,
        California.  It was flown by Jacquelin Cochran at a
        speed of 842.6 mph.

In 1965, the barrier air patrol over the North Atlantic
        ended as an EC-121J Warning Star of VW-11 landed at
        Keflavik, Iceland.

In 1973, the University of Texas at Arlington becomes the
        first accredited school to offer a course in belly

In 1974, we lost Charles Lindbergh

In 1977, the Navy unveiled its new XFV-12A vertical/short
        takeoff and landing research aircraft at the
        Rockwell International facility in Columbus, Ohio.
        The XFV-12A, a single engine, single seat, thrust-
        augmented wing prototype high-performance fighter
        aircraft was designed to operate from small ships.

                    August 27

In 1783, French chemist J.A.O. Charles inflates a balloon
        with Hydrogen and completes the first free ascent
        of a Hydrogen-filled balloon from Champ de Mars,
        Paris. This was an "unmanned" flight. The balloon
        had the capacity to lift 9 kg (20-lbs) and was
        just about twice the size of todays Wx-Balloon.

        It might be found interesting that upon bursting
        and falling, farmers observed its approach to
        earth (an orb - UFO) and upon its crash they
        attacked it with farming tools -- thinking,
        "It came from outer space"!
C. S. Forester: born August 27, 1899
        English Novelist; The African Queen; Horatio

In 1910, James McCurdy flying a Curtiss intercepted the
        ground electronic radio signals transmitted by
        an "HM Horton" wireless at Sheepshead Bay, New York.
        McCurdy then responded by tranmsmitting a siganl
        which the Sheepshead Bay Station confirmed

In 1913, Lieutenant Peter (Pyotr) Nesterov of the Imperial
        Russian Air Service, flying a Nieuport Type IV
        monoplane at Kiev, performed a loop, the first
        aerobatic maneuver in an airplane by an Army
        officer. He was promptly arrested for endangering
        government property: his airplane.

In 1923, the first sets of Air-to-Air Refueling were
        accomplished over Rockwell Field, San Diego,
        California. Lt. Lowell H. Smith, USAS and Lt. John
        P.Richter, USAS flew an Army Air Service
        DH-4B/A.S.63397 for a record endurance flight of
        37-hours, 15-minuters and 14-seconds. They were
        regularly "air refueled" by two other Air Service
        DH-4Bs. Pilots of the refueling crews: Lt. Virgil Hine;
        Lt. Frank W. Seefert; Lt. Randolph G. Ervin and; Lt.
        Oliver R. McNeel.

In 1926, Commander John Rodgers, Naval Aviator No. 2, on a
        flight from Anacostia, crashed in the Delaware River
        near the Naval Aircraft Factory dock and died from
        the injuries he received.

In 1939, Erich Warsitz piloted the first flight of the
        the Heinkel He-178. It remained airborne for seven
        minutes using an He S-3B engine. This was the first
        flight of a turbojet powered aircraft. The He 178
        was a small (7.20m wing span, 7.48m length), light
        (2000kg take-off weight) single-seat aircraft
        capable of achieving a top speed of 700km/h, though
        maximum sustained speed was limited to 580km/h.
        Pabst von Ohain was the inventor and designer of the
        jet engine used in the Heinkel aircraft.

In 1941, William Robert Dunn, born in Minneapolis,
        Minnesota on 16 November 1916 became the first
        American Ace in World War II. He joined 71 (Eagle)
        Squadron on 1 May 1941 flying Hurricanes with the
        rank of Pilot Officer.

        He brought down three (3) Me 109s in July and early
        August of 41'... then became an Ace on 27 August 1941
        flying Spitfire IIa P7308 when he brought down two (2)
        Me 109Fs just off the French coast near Ambleteuse.
        He survived WWII flying (then) with the USAAC and was
        promoted through LtCol and brought down one more
        German aircraft -- an Me 110 in 1944. He stayed with
        the USAAC/USAF until resigning his commission in
        November of 1949. He was the author of the book,
        "Fighter Pilot."

In 1945, Boeing B-29's made the first supply dropping
        mission to WW-II POW's in China.

In 1956, the first static firing ofthe Thor rocket engine at
        AFFTC, Edwards AFB.

In 1956, NACA research pilot Joseph Walker makes the first
        NACA flight in an F-104A aircraft.  This was the
        number 7 F-104 aircraft off the assembly line.

In 1958, the Soviet Union reportedly sent two dogs to an
        altitude of 281 miles and safely returned them to

In 1964, the Walt Disney movie "Mary Poppins" starring Julie
        Andrews and Dick Van Dyke was released in the movie
        theaters at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Los

In 1985, the space shuttle Discovery blasted off on a
        seven-day mission that included the launch of three
        satellites, and the retrieval, repair and
        redeployment of another.  It was STS-51-I.

                    August 28

In 1837, Pharmacists John Lea and William Perrins of
        Worcester, England begin the manufacture of
        Worcestershire Sauce.  They bought the recipe from
        Lord Marcus Sandys who brought it from India.

Charles Stewart Rolls: born August 28, 1877
        Co-founded Rolls Royce

In 1883, the first contolled flight in a glider in the U.S.
        was made by John J. Montgomery at Wheeler Hill, CA. 
        He soared 603 feet at a height of about 15 feet. 
        A replica of this glider is at the Western Museum
        of Flight.

        The first glider flight had taken place in Yorkshire,
        England, flown by Cayley in 1853.

In 1907, the United Parcel Service began service in Seattle
        as the American Messenger Company. Founders were Jim
        Casey and Claude Ryan.

Jacob Kurtzberg: 1917
        aka Jack Kirby;  born in New York City;
        ComicStrip Cartoonist, X-Men, Spiderman, the
        Fantastic Four, the Incredible Hulk, & Capt. America

In 1923, a new world refueled flight duration record of 37
        hours, 15 minutes was completed (see August 27).

In 1935, automatic radio navigation equipment, a Sperry
        automatic pilot mechnically linked to a standard
        radio compass, was tested at the Equipment
        Laboratory at Wright Field.

In 1937, the first flight of the Junkers Ju-90. At the time,
        it was considered a wide body passenger plane. It
        could carry over 40 passengers and was fitted with
        a variety of engines including the Jumo 211 and
        the BMW 132.

In 1948, the Caroline Mars landed at Chicago with 42 persons
        on  board and a 14,000 pound payload, after a record
        non-stop flight from Honolulu of 4,748 miles in 24
        hours, 12 minutes.

In 1951, Flying Leathernecks starring John Wayne was
        released in movie theaters in the US.

In 1957, the ground level ejection seat, designed and
        developed by the Martin-Baker Aircraft Co. Ltd., of
        England, and under evaluation by Grumman Aircraft
        for the Navy, was demonstrated at NAS Patuxent
        River. A successful ejection was made by Lieutenant
        Sydney Hughes, RAF, from an F9F-8T flying just
        above the ground at 120 m.p.h.

In 1958, the first flight of the Beech Model 65 Queen Air.

In 1962, CIA U-2 takes first photo of Russian missile
        build-up in Cuba starting "Cuban missile Crisis";
        CIA Pilot: Bob Ericson

In 1967, the first flight of U-2R N-803X(68-10329); Lockheed
        Test Pilot: Bill Park
In 1974, the Chief of Naval Operations released a formal
        VFAX operational requirement directing Naval Air
        Systems Command to perform industrial solicitation
        and full-scale development. The VFAX concept was by
        this time under management by NAVAlR's PMA-265. The
        aircraft that finally emerged from the VFAX concept
        was the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet.

In 1975, the first flight of the Robinson R-22

                    August 29

In 1893, a patent was issued to Whitcomb Judson for his
        "Clasp-Locker".  This would undergo several changes
        by other inventors before its final incarnation as
        the zipper.

In 1909, the world's first air race, the Gordon Bennett Cup,
        is held in Rheims, France.  Glenn Curtiss sets the
        world air speed record at 46.6 mph.

In 1916, the NACA recieved $82,500 for fiscal year 1917,
        part of which later went to construction of the
        laboratory at Langley field.

In 1916, the Naval Appropriation Act for fiscal year 1917
        provided for the establishment of a Naval Flying
        Corps to be composed of 150 officers and 350
        enlisted men in addition to those provided by law
        for other branches of the Navy.

In 1938, Major Alexander de Seversky set an east-west
        transcontinental speed record of 10 hours, 2
        minutes, 56 seconds, for the 2,457 mile flight.

In 1940, the exchange with the British Tizard Mission of
        scientific and technical information concerning
        radar began at a conference attended by Sir Henry
        Tizard, two of his associates, and representatives
        of the U.S. Army and Navy including Lieutenant J. A.
        Moreno of the Bureau of Aeronautics.

In 1941, Dive Bomber starring Errol Flynn, Fred MacMurray
        and Ralph Bellamy was released in the US. Story
        and Screenplay by Frank Wead.

In 1947, Chuck Yeager flew the X-1 #1 Serial 46-062 on its
        first powered AF flight. He reached Mach 0.85.

In 1956, during the second NACA flight of X-1B, the cabin
        pressure regulator malfunctioned and the inner
        canopy cracked.

In 1958, the Lockheed Electra, selected in April as the
        plane most closely meeting requirements for long
        range antisubmarine warfare, made its first flight
        in the external configuration of the P3V-1.

In 1959, a Navy technician successfully withstood a record
        31 g's in the centrifuge at AMAL, Johnsville,

In 1965, Gemini 5 splashed into the Atlantic 90 miles off
        target after a record breaking 8-day space flight,
        and 45 minutes later Navy frogmen helped astronauts
        Gordon Cooper and Charles Conrad out of their space
        ship and aboard a helicopter for flight to the prime
        recovery ship Lake Champlain.

In 1970, the first flight of the McDonnell Douglas
        DC-10 (-10).

In 1972, John Konrad, Vought Aeronautics test pilot, made
        first flight in a two-place version of the A-7E that
        the company had developed to demonstrate to the Air
        Force and the Navy the advantages of a two-place
        configuration of the A-7 for use as an advanced
        trainer or for such tactical duties as electronics

In 1973, HM-12 received the first RH-53D Sea Stallion
        helicopters. The RH-53Ds were especially configured
        for minesweeping operations.

In 1976, the Navy's last S-2 Tracker aircraft, operating
        with VS-37, was withdrawn from service. This model
        had entered service in February 1954.

In 1977, the first production model of the P-3C Orion update
        II arrived at NATC for technical evaluation.  It
        incorporated the latest in avionics and weapons
        systems, including a turret-mounted infrared
        detection device to drop out of the nose to identify
        targets day or night. The aircraft also had the
        Harpoon air-to-surface missile system.

In 1978, the first flight of the Mitsubishi Mu-300.

In 1995, aided by a NASA developed propulsion controlled
        aircraft system (PCA), a McDonnell Douglas MD-11
        makes the first safe landing of an actual transport
        aircraft using only engine power for control.

                   August 30

Ernest Rutherford: born August 30, 1871
        Physicist, New Zealand, discovered the atomic
        nucleus; Nobel 1908

In 1913, a Sperry gyroscopic stabilizer was flight tested in
        the C-2 Curtiss flying boat by Lt. (jg) P.N.L.
        Bellinger at Hammondsport, NY. 

Ted Williams: born August 30, 1918
        HALL OF FAMER, Major League Baseball.  Also, he was
        a Marine Corps combat pilot during WW-II and the
        Korean War. During the Korean War, he flew 38 combat
        missions and received the Air Medal with 2 gold

In 1939, Lt Commander Thurston B. Clark, flying a twin
        engined XJO-3 equipped with tricycle landing gear,
        made 11 landings and take-offs from the Lexington
        off Coronado Roads, demonstrating the adaptability
        of tricycle landing gear to carrier operations.

In 1956, the Air Coordinating Committee approved a common
        military/civil shortrange air navigation system
        called VORTAC. This system consisted of a
        combination of the Navy developed TACAN (Tactical
        Air Navigation System) and the Civil Aeronautic
        Authority's VOR (Very High Frequency Omnirange
        direction finder).

In 1957, "Kukla, Fran, And Ollie" last aired on ABC.

In 1957, the USAF accepted the first C-133A turboprop

In 1979, the first prototype of the Navy's SH-60B Seahawk
        helicopter was unveiled at Sikorsky Aircraft
        Division at Stratford, CT. The SH-60B was designed
        to operate from destroyers, frigates and cruisers in
        performing its role in the LAMPS mission which was
        detecting, classifying, locating and destroying
        hostile submarines and surface vessels over extended

In 1979, a US Navy CH-53D Sea Stallion lifted a 12 foot
        bronze statue of the Madonna and child to the top of
        Mt. Tiberius on Capri, Italy, to replace the one
        that had been destroyed by lightning.

In 1983, Guion S. Bluford Jr. became the first black
        American astronaut to travel in space, flying aboard
        the shuttle Challenger in the eighth Space Shuttle
        Mission STS-8). In another first, Bluford blasted
        off from Cape Canaveral at night with Truly,
        Brandenstein, Gardner and Thornton (who was the
        oldest astronaut at 54) aboard.

In 1984, shuttle Discovery was launched on its first voyage

                    August 31

Hermann Von Helmholtz: born August 31, 1821
        German Scientist; best-known for his statement of
        the law of conservation of energy.

In 1842, the U.S. Naval Observatory is authorized by an act
        of Congress.

Sir Bernard Lovell: born August 31, 1913
        English Astronomer, the force behind the world's
        first major radio telescope in 1957.

In 1932, Captain A.W. Stevens and Lt. C.D. McAllister flew 5
        miles above the Earth's surface at Fryeburg, Maine,
        to photograph an eclipse of the Sun.

In 1941, a South Atlantic air route was being developed to
        North Africa and the Middle East. This southern
        route was much longer but would provide an alternate
        means to reach England without risking winter
        storms. To test the feasibility of such a route,
        Colonel Haynes, along with Major Curtis E. LeMay,
        set out from Bolling Field on August 31, 1941, in a
        B-24. They flew a southern route from Florida to
        West Africa via Brazil and across Africa to Cairo,
        then went on to Basra in the Persian Gulf and
        returned to the U.S. along the same route. This
        flight completed an unprecedented and thoroughly
        successful 26,000- mile trip.

In 1946, Foghorn Leghorn, Cartoon Character, made his debut
        in 'Walky Talky Hawky' by Warner Bros.

In 1950, pilots of Composite Squadron 5 completed carrier
        qualifications onboard Coral Sea in the AJ-1 Savage,
        marking the introduction of this long-range attack
        bomber to carrier operations.

In 1951, the Douglas D-558-2 #1, BuAer No. 37973, was
        delivered to NACA. This aircraft completed 122
        flights during its Douglas contractor program. The
        first flight was on 4 Feb. 1948, by John F. Martin.
        After  initial flight testing, and addition of its
        rocket engine, Douglas began performance
        investigation in the aircraft on 25 Oct. 1949.

        NACA sent it to Douglas in 1954 for all-rocket
        air-launch modification, for external stores tests
        at supersonic speeds. The aircraft returned to
        Edwards on 15 Nov. 1955. NACA research pilot John
        McKay completed a familiarization flight on 17 Sept.
        1956, but NACA subsequently canceled the remaining
        planned program.

In 1956, NACA conducted flight #9 of the X-1E.  It reached
        Mach 2 at 60,000 feet.

In 1958, the first flight of the North American A-5

In 1962, the passing of an era was marked by the last flight
        of a Navy airship at NAS Lakehurst, NJ.  Pilots on
        the last flight were Commander W.D. Ashe and
        Commander R. Shannon.  Passengers included Vice
        Admiral Charles E. Rosendahl and Captain Fred N.

In 1965, President Johnson approved a policy on the
        promotion and decoration of astronauts by which each
        military astronaut would receive, upon the
        completion of his first space flight, a one grade
        promotion up to and including colonel in the Air
        Force and Marine Corps and captain in the Navy, and
        Gemini astronauts completing a successful space
        flight would receive the NASA Medal for Exceptional
        Service (or cluster).

In 1969, two LC-130's of VXE-6 arrived at McMurdo Sound,
        Antarctica, 6 weeks in advance of the opening of
        Operation Deep Freeze 70. Among the passengers were
        Rear Admiral David F. Welch, Commander Naval Support
        Force, Antarctica, and seven scientists.

In 1969, boxer Rocky Marciano died in the crash of a small
        airplane in Iowa, one day short of his 46th

In 1977, the FAI world altitude record was set by Alexandr
        Fedotov flying an E-266M Mikoyan to 37,650 meters
        (123,524 feet) over Podmoskovnoe Aerodrome.
        Aircraft (registration #1) was powered by 2
        RDF (14,000 kg each) Turbo-jets.

In 1994, the Spirit of Texas, (88-0328), the third
        operational B-2, arrived at Whiteman.